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PSY 401

Gestalt Psychology

What is the basis of Gestalt theory? Configuration, pattern, & form. Major opponent of structuralism and behaviorism. Importance of wholes, rather than parts.
What is relational determination? Qualities of parts depend upon their relationship to the whole. (Really what Gestalt psychologists are all about). Our minds fill in missing info because the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts.
What are the Principles of Organization? 1.Figure-Ground Relationship. 2.Perceptual Set. 3.Perceptual Consistency.
What is Phi Phenomenon? Rapid sequences of perceptual events create the illusion of apparent movement even when there is none.
Describe the Figure-Ground Relationship. Elements are perceived as either figures (distinct elements of focus) or ground (the background or landscape on which the figures rest).
Perceptual Set: Similarity. 1.Things that are similar are perceived to be more related than things that are dissimilar.
Perceptual Set: Proximity 2.Things that are close to one another are perceived to be more related than things that are spaced farther apart.
Perceptual Set: Closure 3.When looking at a complex arrangement of individual elements, humans tend to first look for a single, recognizable pattern.
What is Perceptual Consistency? The things we see remain stable even though our eyes, head, and body are constantly moving
Kohler contributed greatly to Gestalt and Learning theories. Describe his studies with chickens. He trained chickens to peck grains from either light or dark papers. Later they're presented grains on even lighter/darker papers. The results showed that most chickens had learned an association with a relationship, rather than with a specific color.
Describe Kohler's "The Mentality of Apes" (1917). Demonstrated that Gestalt theory can be applied to animal behavior. Found that chimps could only get out of a maze by trial & error unless they could see the maze as a whole. Chimps may show a much more intelligent level of learning than trial & error.
Explain how Edward Tolman developed his ideas about cognitive maps in rats. He would show the rat the whole maze & the release it to the start of the maze. By doing this supposedly the rat has a "mental representation" of the maze and was able to master the maze more efficiently.
What is insight, according to Gestalt psychologists? Sudden realization of the whole.
Describe Wertheimer's "Productive Thinking" (1945). Wrote about the difference between ~Reproductive thinking: reproduction of previous solutions - static problem solving strategy. & ~Productive thinking: reorganization of a problem to find a solution.
Describe the story of Young Gauss First grader who could add a string of consecutive numbers much quicker than any of his classmates. Could do this by looking at the numbers as a group rather than individually.
Created by: cassidylm34