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Semester 2 Review

circuit closed conducting loop through which an electric current can flow
electric current the net movement of electric charges in a single direction, measured in amperes
conductor material, such as copper wire, in which electrons can move easily
insulator material in which electrons are not able to move easily
law of conservation of charge states that charge can be transferred from one object to another but cannot be created or destroyed
chemical change change of one substance into a new substance
chemical property any characteristic of a substance, such as flammability, that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical change
physical change any change in size, shape, or state of matter in which the identity of the substance remains the same
physical property any characteristics of a material, such as a size or shape, that you can observe or attempt to observe without changing the identity of the material
law of conservation of mass states that the mass of all substances present before a chemical change equals the mass of all the substances remaining after the change
kinetic theory explanation of the behavior of molecules in matter; states that all matter is made of constantly moving particles that collide without losing energy
thermal expansion increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is increased
buoyancy ability of a fluid--a liquid or a gas--to exert an upward force on an object immersed in the fluid
proton particle, composed of quarks, inside the nucleus of an atom that has a charge of 1+
neutron neutral particle, composed of quarks, inside the nucleus of an atom
electron particles surrounding the center of an atom that have a charge of 1-
atomic number number of protons in an atom's nucleus
mass number sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
ductile ability of metals or alloys to be pulled into wires
malleable ability of metals and alloys to be rolled or hammered into thin sheets
metal element that typically is a hard, shiny solid, is malleable, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
nonmetals element that usually is a gas or brittle solid at room temperature, is not malleable or ductile, is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, and typically is not shiny
metalloids elements that share some properties with metals and some with nonmetals
Created by: emilymarroquin