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semester study guide

circuit closed conducting loop through which an electric current can flow.
electric current the net movement of electric charges in a single direction, measured in amperes.
conductor material, such as copper wire, in which electrons can move easily.
insulator material in which electrons are not table to move easily.
law of conservation of charge states that charge can be transferred from one object to another but cannot be created or destroyed.
chemical change change of one substance into a new substance.
chemical property any characteristic of a substance, such as flammability, that indicates whether in can underge a certain chemical change.
physical change any change in size, shape, or state of matter in which the identity of the substance remains the same.
law of conservation of mass states that the mass of all substances present before a chemical change equals the mass of all the substances remaining after the change.
kinetic theory the body of theory that explains the physical properties of matter in terms of the motions of its constituent particles.
thermal expansion increase in the size, of a substances when the temperature is increased.
viscosity a fluid's resistance to flow.
buoyancy the ability or tendency to float in water or air or some other fluid.
proton particles, composed of quarks, inside the nucleus of an atom that has a charge of 1.
neutron neutral particle, composed of quarks. inisde the nucleus of an atom.
electron a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
ductile able to be deformed without losing toughness; pliable, not brittle.
malleable able to be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking.
metal a solid material that is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity.
nonmetals an element or substance that is not a metal.
metalloids whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and solid nonmetals. They are electrical semiconductors.
physical property A physical property is any property that is measurable whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Created by: luisgomez1