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Semester 2 vocab

vocab

TermDefinition
Circuit closed conducting loop through which an electric current can flow
Electric current the net movement of electric charges in a single direction, measured in amperes.
conductor material, such as copper wire, in which electrons can move easily.
insulator material in which electrons are not able to move easily.
law of conservation of charge states that charge can be transferred from one object to another but cannot be created or destroyed.
chemical change change of one substance into a new substance.
chemical property any characteristic of substance, such as flammability, that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical change.
physical change any change in size, shape, or state of matter in which the identity of the substance remains the same.
Law of conservation of mass states that the mass of all substance present before a chemical change equals the mass of all the substance remaining after the change.
kinetic theory explanation of the behavior of molecules in matter; states that all matter is made of constantly moving particles that collide without losing energy.
thermal expansion sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles in an object; is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation.
viscosity a fluid's resistance to flow.
buoyancy ability of a fluid - a liquid or a gas - to exert an upward force on an object immersed in the fluid.
proton particle, composed of quarks, inside the nucleus of an atom that has a charge of 1+
neutron neutral particle, composed of quarks, inside the nucleolus of an atoms.
electron particles surrounding the center of an atom that have a charge of 1-.
atomic number number of protons in an atom's nucleus.
mass number sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
ductile ability of metals to be drawn into wires.
malleable ability of metals and alloys to be rolled or hammered into thin sheets.
metal element that typically is a hard, shiny solid, is malleable, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
nonmetals elements that usually is a gas or brittle solid at room temperature; is not malleable or ductile, is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, and typically not shiny.
metalloids element that shares some properties with metals and some with nonmetals.
physical property any characteristic of a material, such as size or shape, that you can observe or attempt to observe without changing the identity of the material.
Created by: homerogonzalez