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Chapter 24-27 Vocab.

Sahel. The region in Africa just south of the Sahara.
Colonialism. The system by which countries set up colonies to secure sources of raw materials and markets for their goods.
Plateau. An area of high, flat land.
Escarpment. A steep cliff that separates two level areas of differing elevations.
Chaparral. A type of natural vegetation that is adapted to Mediterranean climates; small evergreen trees and low bushes, or scrub.
Savanna. A tropical grassland with scattered trees, located in the warm lands near the Equator.
Oral history. History passed down by the word of mouth.
Nomadic herding. The practice of moving flocks to different pastures throughout the year.
Leaching. The dissolving and washing away of nutrients in the soil.
Land degradation. Reduction in the productive potential of the land.
Population density. The average number of people living in a given area.
Delta. The land that forms at the mouth of some rivers by soil that is dropped as the river slows and enters the sea.
Fellaheen. Egyptian peasants.
Sandstorm. A windstorm that blows hot air, dust, and grit.
Bazaar. An open-air market; a street lined with shops and stalls.
Basin irrigation. In Egypt, a system by which water and silt were controlled by embankments and time-release to irrigate farmlands.
Reservoir. A natural or artificial lake used to collect water for human needs.
Perennial irrigation. An irrigation system that provides necessary water to the land throughout the year.
Capital. Wealth in the form of money or property owned or used in business.
Wadi. A usually dry riverbed or gully that temporarily holds water from a sudden downpour.
Caravan. A large group of merchants who join together to travel in safety.
Medina. The old section of a North African city, usually centered around a mosque.
Souk. A market in an Arab country.
Shifting agriculture. The practice of farming a suite until the soil is exhausted, then moving on to a new site.
Forage. Food for grazing animals.
Deforestation. The process of stripping the land of its trees.
Desertification. The transformation of arable land into desert either naturally or through human intervention.
Refugee. A person who escapes his or her country to escape danger or unfair treatment.
Landlocked. Almost surrounded entirely by land; cut off from the sea.
Inland delta. An area of lakes, creeks, and swamps away from the ocean.
Coup. The sudden overthrow of a ruler or government, often involving violent force or threat of force.
Ancestor worship. The belief that respecting and honoring one's ancestors will cause them to live on in the spirit world after death.
Animism. The religious belief that such things as the sky, rivers, and trees contain gods or spirits.
World Bank. An agency of the United Nations that provides loans to countries for development projects.
International Monetary Fund. An agency of the United Nations that provides loans to countries for development projects.
Structural adjustment program. A program to reform the structure of an economy.
Watershed. A dividing range between two basins.
Mercenary. A professional soldier hired by a foreign country.
Barter. The exchange of goods without money.
Harambee. A policy of cooperation adopted in Kenya after independence to encourage economic growth.
Pyrethrum. A pesticide produced from certain flowers.
Malnutrition. Disease caused by a lack of food or an unbalanced diet.
Strategic value. Importance of a place or thing for nations planning military actions.
Ethnocracy. A system of government when in which one ethnic group rules over others.
Villagization. A political movement by which rural people are forced to move to towns and work on collective farms.
Apartheid. Formerly in the Republic of South Africa, the policy of strict racial segregation.
Segregation. The separation of races.
Sanction. An action taken by the international community to punish a country for unacceptable behaviors.
Enclave. A country completely surrounded by another country.
White flight. The departure of white people from a region.
Land redistribution. A policy by which land is taken from those who own large amounts and redistributed to those who have little or none.
Created by: jackfulcher



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