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Chapter 24-27

Sahel The region in Africa just south of the Sahara
Colonialism The system by which countries set up colonies to secure sources of raw materials and markets for their products
plateau a area of high, flat land
escarpment a steep cliff that separates two level areas of differing elevations
Chaparral a type of natural vegetation that is adapted to Mediterranean climates: small evergreen trees and low bushes, or scrubs
savanna A tropical grassland with scattered trees located in the warm lands near the Equator
oral history history passed down by word or mouth
nomadic herding the practice of moving flocks o different pastures throughout the year
leaching the dissolving and washing away of nutrients in the soil
land degradation reduction in the productive potential of the land
population density the average number of people living in a given area
delta The land that forms at the mouth of some rivers
fellaheen Egyptian peasants sing
sandstorm a windstorm that blows hot air, dust, and grit
bazaar an open-air market
basin irrigation in Egypt a system by which water ans slit were controlled by embankments and time released to irrigate farmlands
resrvoir a natural or artificial lake used to collect water for human needs
perennial irrigation an irrigation system that provides necessary water to the land throughout the year
capital Wealth in the form of money or property owned or used in business
wadi a usually dry riverbed or gully that temporarily holds water from a sudden downpour
caravan a large group of merchants who join together to travel in saftey
medina the old section of North African city usually centered aorund the world
souk A market in an Arab community.
shifting agriculture the practice of farming a site until the soil is exhausted then moving on to a new site
forage food for grazing animals
deforestation the process of striping the land of its trees
desertification the transformation of arable land into desert either naturally or through human intervention
refugee a person who flees his or hers country to escape danger or unfair treatment
landlocked almost or entirely surrounded by land; vut off from the sea
island delta an area of lakes, creeks and swamps away from the ocean
coup the sudden overthrown of a ruler or government often involving violent force or the threat of force
ancestor worship the belief that respecting and honoring ones ancestors will cause them to live on the spirit world after death
animism the religious belief that such things as sky, rivers,and trees contain gods or spirits.
world bank an agency of the United Nations that provides loans to countries for development projects
international monetary fund an agency of the United Nations that provides loans to countries fro the development projects
structural adjustment program a program to reform the structure of an economy
watershed a diving ridge between two basins
mercenary a professional soldier hired b a foreign country
barter the exchange of goods without money
harambee a policy of cooperation adopted in Kenya after independence to encourage economic growth
pyrethrum a pesticide produced from certain flowers
mainutrition disease caused by s lack of food or an unbalanced diet
strategic value importance of a place or thing for nations planning military actions
echnocracy a system of government in which one ethnic group rules over the other
villagization a political movement by which rural people are forced to move to towns and work on collective farms
aparthied formerly in the Republic of South Africa the policy of strict racial segregation
segregation the separations of the races
sanction an action taken by the international community to publish a country for unacceptable behaviors
enclave a country completely surrounded by another country
white flight the departure of white people from a region
land redistribution a policy by which land is taken from those who own large amounts and redistributed to those who have little or none
Created by: Jaycie15