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Who was Jean Piaget? Leader in cognitive development. Worked with Alfred Binet in intelligence tests and became interested in cognitive development of children.
How did Piaget begin his research? Began research by observing the development of his children: Lauren, Lucienne, and Jacqueling
What did Piaget conclude? From his observations, Piaget was able to establish his own terminology and theories of how "normal" children develop cognitively. Believed that children are constantly "adapting" to their environment through the demands put on them
Schema A concept or mental framework that organizes and interprets information in the world
Equilibrium A cognitive state of mind that comes from harmony between a child's environment and present schema
Disequilibrium A cognitive state of mind caused when new information contradicts current schemas
When children encounter disequilibrium, what are their two choices? Assimilation or accomodation
Assimilation Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schema
Accomodation Adapting one's current schemas to incorporate new information
Equilibration Shifting from one frame of mind to the next
According to Piaget, how do children develop? In a consistent matter that causes them to start noticing different cognitive schema conflicts in a similar pattern & when they reach a certain stage, they recognize numerous conflicts w/ their current schema
What are Piaget's proposed stages of cognitive development? Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational, Formal Operational
The Sensorimotor Stage (0-2) This stage is primarily focused on learning different outcomes through the senses and then learning the ways to increase the frequency of desirable outcomes
What are cognitive challenges that may appear in the sensorimotor stage? Object Permanence and sense of self
Preoperational Stage (2-7) Broken into two substages: Symbolic Function and Intuitive thought
The Symbolic Function Substage (2-4) Overcoming egocentrism, learning pretend play, overcoming animism
Intuitive Though Substage (4-7) Learning symbolism such as vocabulary and asking "why"
Conservation The ability to better understand the properties of shapes and objects
The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11) Child can reason logically about concrete events, understand the concept of conservation, organizes objects into hierarchical classes (classification) and places objects in ordered series (seriation)
Metacognition The ability to think about your thinking
Formal Operational Stage (11-15) Abstract reasoning and adolescent egocentrism
Abstract Reasoning Focus on the ideal and hypothetical, easy recognition of logic problems, move towards hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Adolescent Egocentrism A heightened sense of self-consciousness
Imaginary Audience perception of being the constant center of attention
Personal Fable Perception of being unique and invincible
Who was Ley Vygotsky? Researched the ideas of cognitive development that were described by Piaget. Agreed with the notion that a developmental process in cognitive skills does take place. Argued against Piaget's idea that this cognitive development is set & cant be accelerated
What are Vygotsky's theories of development? Cognitive development occurs through gradual and continual growth, not quick shifts. Instead of being in different developmental stages, we progress in a way that creates varied levels of capability to learning new concepts
Zone of Proximal Development Areas where a learned can accomplish a cognitive task with guidance
Scaffolding The process of teaching slightly above the current level of cognitive development in order to help the learner better understand a cognitive concept
Created by: 100001362536770
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