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Early warning signs of decline Excess personnel, tolerance of incompetence, cumbersome administrative procedures
Early warning signs of decline misappropriate staff power, replacement of substance with form, no clear goals
Early warning signs of decline fear of embarrassment and conflict, loss of effective communication, outdated organizational structure, increased scapegoat by leaders
Early warning signs of decline Resistance to change, low morale, special interest groups are more vocal, decreased innovation
Organizational narcissism Tendency to deny facts, use self aggrandizement and feel entitled
innovation Creation of something that is used by customers
Challenges of innovation Find an idea, develop a solution, sponsorship and funding, reproduction, reach your potential customer, beat your competitors, timing, keep the lights on
executive Process of discussing how's and what's, questioning following through and ensuring accountability
4 characteristics common to all organizations Coordination of effort,a common goal, division of labor, hierarchy of authority
Learning organization One that provocatively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights
7 ways organizations are structured functional structures, divisional structures, matrix structures, horizontally, hollow, modular, virtual
functional structures work is divided according to function
divisional structures work is divided according to product or customer type or location
matrix structures dual reporting structures based on product and function
horizontal structures cross functional teams responsible for entire processes
hollow structures outsourcing functions
modular organizations outsource the production of a products components
virtual organization temporarily combine the efforts of members of different companies in order to complete a project
4 generic organizational effectiveness criteria goal accomplishment, resource acquisition, internal processes, strategic constituencies
Lewin's 3 stages of change unfreezing, changing, and refreezing
unfreezing Creating the motivation to change. individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with those desired by management
benchmarking the overall process by which a company compares it performance w/ that of other companies, then learns how the strongest-performing companies achieve their results
changing change ha taken place to improve some process
refreezing supporting and reinforcing change. and that change no matter how big or small has a cascading effect thru the company
mission statement the reason an organization exists
invention the creation of new products or processes thru the development of new knowledge or from new combinations of existing knowledge
innovation the initial commercialization of invention by producing and selling a new product, service, or process
incremental innovation simple changes or adjustments in existing products or processes
Kaizen continuous improvement - the process of relentlessly trying to find ways to improve and enhance a company's products and processes from design thru assembly, sales, and service
six sigma a continuous improvement program that takes a very rigorous & analytical to quality & continuous improvement with an objective to improve profits thru defect reduction, yield improvement, improved customer satisfaction
breakthrough innovation an innovation in a product, process, technology, or the cost associated with it that represents a quantum leap forward in one or more of these ways
disruptive innovation a term to characterize breakthrough innovation that shakes up or revolutionaries the industry
entrepreneurship the process of bringing together creative & innovative ideas and actions w/ the management & organizational skills necessary to mobilize the appropriate people, money, and operating resources to meet identifiable need & create wealth in the process.
innovation a grand strategy that seeks to reap the premium margins associated with creation and customer acceptance of a new product or service
horizontal integration a grand strategy based on growth thru the acquisition of similar firms operating at the same stage of the production marketing chain
external forces for change originate outside the organization
internal forces for change originate inside the organization
types of change adaptive, innovative, and radically innovate
adaptive change reintroducing a familiar practice
innovative change introducing a practice new to the organization
radically innovative change introducing a practice new to the industry
job design changing the content or process of a specific job to increase job satisfaction and performance
scientific management using research and experimentation to find the most efficient way to perform a job
job enlargement putting more variety into a job
job rotation moving employees from one specialized job to another
job enrichment building achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement into a job
core job dimensions job characteristics found to various degrees in all jobs
feedback the extent to which an individual receives direct and clear information about how effectively he or she is performing the job
feedback objective information about performance
360 degree feedback comparison of anonymous feedback from ones superior, subordinates, and peers with self perceptions
extrinsic rewards financial , material , or social rewards from the environment
intrinsic rewards self-granted, psychic rewards
pay for performance monetary incentives tied to ones results or accomplishments
Created by: nashanta
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