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Neurons

QuestionAnswer
What are the past theories to explain functions of the mind? Humors, Hydraulic, and Spiritual Theories
Who was Camillo Golgi? A scientist who worked on "silver staining"
What did Ramon y Cajal do? Came up with theories and improvements to staining methods
What are Neurons? Specialized cells that receive/transmit information throughout the body and brain
How many neurons do we have in our body by adulthood? 80-100 billion
Where are neurons located? Throughout the body with the highest concentration in the brain regions
What makes up a neuron? The cell body, dendrites, axon, terminal branches, myelin sheath, and neural impulse
Cell Body The cell's life support center
Dendrites Receives messages from other cells
Axon Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Neural Impules Electrical signal traveling down the axon
Terminal branches of axon Form junctions with other cells
Myelin Sheath Covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
What is the Synapse? A very small space that separates the terminal buttons of one neutron from the dendrites of another
What are Neurotransmitters? Chemicals that are released by pores in the terminal buttons of neurons
What are neurotransmitters do? They can either excite or inhibit
Excite Increase the chances of to cause the second neuron to release its neurotransmitters
Inhibit Reduce the likelihood that the second neuron releases its neurotransmitters
How do neurons know when to release neurotransmitters? When the dendrites of a neuron are excited they start the action potential at the axon
What is the Action Potential? An all-or-none signal that is propagated along the axon of the neuron and involves a flow of positive and negative charged ions along the length of the axon
What happens in the Synapse? Activation (excitation/inhibition), Reuptake, and Diffusion/Metabolized
Activation Neurotransmitters temporarily "cling" to the dendrites of another neuron, and influence the neuron based on the type of neurotransmitter that was released
Reuptake The axon terminal eventually "suck back" the neurotransmitters that were released almost like recycling
Diffusion/Metabolized The neurotransmitter can be broken down, washed away, or used up by other cells and enzymes that are located in the synapse
Glia(l) Cells Cells that support neurons by removing waste, synchronizing activity, and insulating neurons such as protection and mylenation
What are three examples of neurotransmitters? Acetylcholine (Ach), Dopamine (DA), and Serotonin (5-HT)
Acetylcholine Released at every motor neuron at the skeletal muscle synapses.
How is botulin related to ACh? Poison blocks ACh release from sending neurons, causing paralysis
How is Black Widow Venom related to ACh? Poison causes flood of Ach causing violent convulsion
Dopamine Implicated in "reward" or positive emotional sensation and motivation
What is associated with high levels of Dopamine? Schizophrenia and hallucinations
What is associated with low levels of Dopamine? Parkinson's Disease
Serotonin Implicated in psychological wellness/mood and is linked to areas that control hunger, sleep cycles, and arousal
Created by: 100001362536770