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PFT Final

QuestionAnswer
TLC, RV and RV/TLC ratio is used to define the pattern and extent of air trapping and hyperinflation? True or False True
Which is not a contraindication for pulmonary function testing? cardiac arrhythmia, chronic cough, untreated pneumothorax, active chest pain, untreated PE Chronic Cough
Spirometry can be used to evaluate disability for Social Security? T or F True
DLCO is used to assess pulmonary involvement in systemic diseases? T or F True
Which test is used to differentiate between emphysema & Chronic Bronchitis? FVC, SVC, DLCO, Lung Volumes DLCO
Cardiopulmonary stress testing is used to determine the level of cardiac fitness? T or F True
Which is not an indication for spirometry? smoking, abnormal CXR, fatigue, working in hazardous environment, dyspnea Fatigue
Lung volumes are used to assess the severity of restrictive lung disease? T or F True
Cardiopulmonary stress tests can be used in the determination of heart failure in the workup process for heart transplantation?T or F True
Spirometry does not consist of which of the following? SVC, Lung volumes, FVC, MVV Lung Volumes
Body Plethsymography uses which gas law? Charles, Boyles, Howes, Venture principle Boyles Law
Which is considered the "gold standard" for spirometers? body box, dry rolling seal, water seal, bellows or wedge Water Seal
Wright respirometer is considered what type of pneumotachometer? pressure differential, heated wire, turbine, pitot tube Turbine
Which of the following can alter the calibration of a spirometer that uses a pressure differential pneumotachometer? moisture on flow sensor, heating element not working, not properly scaled, bellows are sticking Moisture on the flow sensor or restrictive element
Which of the following can be used to analyze multiple gases simultaneously? thermal conductivity, gas chromatography, emission spectroscopy, infrared absorption Gas chromatography
Which type of analyzer can be used for breath-by-breath measurement of CO2? thermal imaging, polargraphic, zirconium fuel cell, thermal conductivity Zirconium fuel cell
Which of the following is not a volume displacement spirometer? water seal, bellows, pitot tube, dry rolling seal Pitot Tube
Which gas is used as a carrier gas when using a gas chromatography? nitrogen, oxygen, helium, neon Helium
Zirconium fuel cell is used in exercise testing. Why? similar to blood gas electrode, fast response time, separates gases, utilizes a ionization chamber Fast response time
Which of the following is considered a pneumotach? water seal, bellows, pitot tube, dry rolling seal pitot tube
When a patient is in a sitting position for spirometry, they should be sitting straight with both feet on the floor? T or F True
When doing a SVC, how many tidal breaths should be performed before the actual SVC maneuver? 2, 3, 4, doesn't matter 3
how many acceptable FVC maneuvers need to be performed? 2, 3, 4, 1 3
A patient with CF has the following FVC results: FVC 3.01L 2.99L 3.12L FEV1 1.99L 2.01L 1.95L Which of the following should be done? report the largest FVC and FEV1
When performing a MVV, the patient breaths should be larger than tidal breaths and at a rapid pace? T or F True
When a patient exhales for 6 seconds with no obvious plateau the test is automatically stopped? T or F False
A back extrapolated maneuver is never acceptable? T or F False
SVC & FVC results should differ by what volume in healthy patients? 50ml, 100ml, 200ml, 250ml 200ml
A patient with a FEV1/FVC ratio of 55% is an indication of what disease process? It is a normal ratio, restrictive disease, obstructive disease obstructive disease
The MVV can be approximated by which formula? 35 x FEV1
Patients with restrictive lung disease can have a normal FEV1/FVC ratio? T or F True
Conversions from ATPS to BTPS need to be done if the spirometer does not perform this calculation? T or F True
When calculating the FEV1/FVC ratio, the ratio must be done after the BTPS correction? T/F False
When performing a FVC, testing can be stopped after 2 repeatable efforts and 3 acceptable efforts are performed? T of F True
Sprirometry is the most common of all the PFT's? T or F True
According to ATC standards, if the patient is unable to perform an acceptable effort, testing may be stopped after how many? 10, 8, 3, 20 8
A FVC is considered repeatable when which criteria is met? cough before 1st sec, 2 best FVC w/i 150ml, 2 best FEV1s w/i 150ml, efforts are at least 6 sec long & obvious plateau All of the above
A blunted or flat inspiratory curve on the flow volume loop is an indication of what? COPD, restrictive lung disease, sleep apnea, upper airway obstruction Upper airway obstruction
When performing an SVC, tidal breathing before and/or after the efforts s/b w/i 100ml. Which calculation is not effected by the tidal breathing? ERV, SVC, TLC, RV SVC Calculation
FEV1 can be measured directly from the flow volume loop? T or F False
What ethnic origin does not receive a race correction? African American, Native American, Asian, Hispanic Native American
Normal range for predicted values is? 95-105%, 90=110%, 80-120%, 75-120% 80-120%
All FVC & VC maneuver need to be corrected to BTPS? T or F True
What is not considered in the calculation of predicted values? Age, height, weight, gender Weight
Women have typically larger lung volumes than men of the same age & Height? T or F False
The VC, SVC and FVC are the most widely used of the pulmonary function test? T or F True
BTPS corrections can be manually calculated if necessary? T or F True
Predicted values generally plateau about the age of 20-25 then decrease at a predictable rate using an acceleration curve? T or F False
Which of the following author is recommended to be used for predicted values by ATS? Kory, Morris, NHANES III, Knudsen NHANES III
The difference between a VC & FVC is the speed and force in which the maneuver is performed? T or F True
MVV stands for what? Maximum Voluntary Ventilation
When performing a MVV, instruct the patient to take breaths that are larger than TV and smaller than VC? T or F True
If the volumes are not corrected to BTPS, the values reported will be higher than actual? T or F False
All reported values are corrected to ATPS? T/F False
When performing a SVC, how many tidal breaths need to be performed prior to the actual SVC maneuver? 2, 3, 5, 1 3
When the LLN is used, it denotes what? midrange for predicted values, upper limit of the normal range, lower limit of normal range, values are out of normal range & considered abnormal The lower limit of the normal range
The MVV can be approx. by which formula? 37.5 x FEV1
Conversions from ATPS to BTPS need to be done if the spirometer does not perform this calculation? T or F True
IRV and ERV are the subdivision of SVC? T or F True
When calculating the BTPS a correction factor is given to correct for the barometric pressure? T or F False
What is the percentage given for race correction? 15%
TGV is the measurement of what lung compartment? TLC, RV, FRC, VT FRC
When reporting Raw/Gaw, these efforts can be averaged? T or F True
When performing a Raw/Gaw maneuver, the patient pants against what?Open shutter, closed shutter Open Shutter
Which of the following can increase the Raw? acute asthmatic episode, bronchospasm, advanced emphysema, all of the above all of the above
TGV is considered the gold standard in lung volume testing? T or F True
TGV is often compared to gas dilution methods and can be useful as an index of air trapping? T or F True
When performing a TGV maneuver, mouth pressure is theoretically equal to what? pressure at mouth, alveolar pressure, atmospheric pressue, barometric pressure Alveolar Pressure
When performing a TGV maneuver, the patient pants against what?Open shutter, closed shutter Closed Shutter
A small air leak in the seal of thh box is acceptable? T or F False
TGV is corrected to BTPS? T or F True
TGV is based on what law? Boyle's Law
The most common methods of measuring FRC is He Dilution, N2 washout or plethsymography? T/F True
When performing a He dilution in a healthy patient, approx. how long before equilibrium is reached? 2 minutes, 3 min, 4 min, 10 min 3-4 minutes
The term hyperinflation refers to abnormally high TLC? T or F True
When performing either a He dilution or N2 washout the breathing s/b regular tidal breathing w/o large tidal volumes? T or F True
Along with the IC what else is required to calculate the TLC? RV, FRC, ERV, VC FRC
When performing a N2 washout, the test can be stopped when the exhaled concentration is between 1 & 2% exhaled? T or F True
When performing a N2 washout in a normal Pt, approx. how long for N2 to washout & the test can be stopped? 1-2 min, 2-3, 3-4, >10 3-4 minutes
Both the N2 washout & He dilution values are corrected to BTPS? T or F True
In patients with COPD, the TLC can be normal? T or F True
If multiple efforts are performed using either method they should agree w/i 10% and can then be averaged? T or F True
The term air trapping refers to an abnormally high RV? T or F True
The TLC is calculated combining other lung volumes. Write one equation TLC = IC + FRC
FRC values of > 120% predicted generally represent hyperinflation? T or F True
Patients with restrictive lung patterns, the FRC is generally elevated? T or F False
In patients with asthma the FRC is generally elevated but can be reversible? T or F True
Vocal cord dysfunction mimics what disease? Asthma
FEF 25-75 is represented by what Curve? Volume-Time Curve
Which is not a bronchoprovication test? methacholine, exercise challenge, bronchodilator response, cold air inhalation Bronchodilator response testing
Acceptability of efforts needs to be met for all challenge testing? T or F True
Warm up periods are recommended for exercise challenge testing? T or F False
When performing a Methacholine challenge, when is testing stopped? 10% or > decrease in FEV1, 20% or > decrease in FVC, 20% or > decrease in FEV1, all levels of methacholine are administered regardless if decrease A 20% or greater decrease in the FEV1 occurs
Bronchial challenge testing can be used to screen individuals who may be at risk from invironmental & occupational exposures? T/F True
When performing a methacholine test, inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antihistamines & caffiene s/b helf only for the day of the test? T or F False
Performing an exercise challenge test will rule out the presence of vocal cord dysfuction? T/F False - it rules out asthma
Exercise challenge testing can be used to determine if the patient has vocal cord dysfunction, exercise induced bronchospasm or both? T or F True
When determining if a patient has a positive response to bronchodilators, which values are used? FVC, FEV1, FEV1 & FVC FEV1 and FVC
A FEV1 of less than 80% predicted is a relative contraindication for methacholine testing? T/F True
Exercise challenge testing is used with patients that have shortness of breath on exertion but have normal PFTs? T or F True
When performing a Methacholint test on a Pt with suspected vocal cord dysfunction, the methacholine will show a positive response? T or F False
When performing an exercise challenge test, the patient needs to exercise for a minimum of 10 minutes? T or F False
A potential problem with exercise testing is that the level and type of exercise will not mimic real life triggers? T or F True
According to ATS standards, what needs to occure for apositive response to bronchodilators? Increase of 12% & 200ml in FVC, Increase 10% & 150ml in FEV1, Increase of 10% & 150ml in both FEV1 & FVC, Increase of 12% & 200ml in both the FEV1 & FVC Increase of 12% and 200 ml in both the FEV1 and FVC
Which of the following are uses for cardiopulmonary stress testing (CPXT)? to guide therapies for heart failure Pts, to evaluate unexplained dyspnea, formulated individualized exercise programs, all above All of the above
At maximal exercise, there is a build up of lactic acid? T or F True
Which are potential limitations of maximal O2 consumption? muscle metabolism, oxygen carrying capacity, the heart, All of above All of the above
VO2max obtained during exercise indicates whether or not a patient has a normal heart, lungs, circulatory system & exercise capacity? T or F True
Which are factors affecting VO2max? type of exercise, gender, natural endowment, age, all of the above All of the above
Which of the following is not generally used for CPXT testing? treadmill, cycle ergometer, 6 minute walk 6 minute walk
Max VO2 obtained at peak exercse can indicate if the Pt had normal exercise capacity or if they are limited by the heart, lungs or circulatory system? T or F True
Key measurements also include METS & anaerobic threshold? T or F False
A VO2 of 16 ml/kg/min is an indication of which of the following? Mild to moderate impairment
VO2 measures the maximal reserve of the pulmonary system? T or F False
VO2 max is not limited by pulmonary function, but instead measures cardiovascular systems maximal reserve? T or F True
What RER indicates a maximal test? 0.78, 0.91, 1.01, 1.10 1.10
Hyperventilation will decrease the RER? T or F False - it will increase the RER RER = relation of CO2 to O2
Lactic acid will begin to accumulate after the patient reaches a RER of 0.8? T or F False - Lactic acid is only released after anaerobic threshold
RER stand for what? respiratory exhalation ratio, ratio exchange respiratory, respiratory exchange ratio Respiratory Exchange Ratio
In cardiopulmonary stress testing the VO2 is usually expressed as? mg/min, L/min, ml/kg/min, mg/kg/hr ml/kg/min - it is the only PFT test where body weight comes into play
What are the uses for Cardiopulmonary stress testing? individual exercise programs, guide therapy for heart Pts, risk stratify potential transplant pts, differentiate between cardiac/pulmonary pts, all of above All of the above
MVV is performed prior to cardiopulmonary stress testing to determine a pts respiratory reserve? T or F True
RER uses what parameters? Vo2 & VCO2, RR & VCO2, RR & VO2, RR & HR VO2 and VCO2
Generally a RER of 1.0 is an indication that an aerobic threshold has been met? T or F True
Testing equipment must be both accurate & precise? T or F True
A syringe is generally used to calibrate & is used as a method for QA? T or F True
What is the accuracy range for a calibration syringe? +/- 1.5%, 2.5%, 3.5%, 4.5% +/- 3.5%
If a 3L syringe is used what is the accuracy range? 2.85-3.15, 2.50-3.50, 2.90-3.10, exactly 3L 2.90L - 3.10L
What can be common problems when calibrating spirometers? cracked/sticking bellows, faulty computer/software signals, leaks in tubing/connectors, all of the above All of the above
Biological controls can be used in repeat testing for QA? T or F True
Disposable mouthpieces should be used for spirometry testing, if not, these mouthpieces need to be sterilized between patients? T/F True
While calibrating a spirometer with a 3L syringe, teh measured volumes are 3.35, 3.40, and 3.39. What should be done to correct the problem? remove bacteria filter, recheck with 1L syringe, locate & repair leak, turn off BTPS correction Turn off BTPS correction
Using a biological control is recommended to be part of the Quality Assurance program? T or F True
Bacteria filters can be used on pulmonary function equipment to help prevent cross contamination? T or F True
Created by: av2426gz