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Radiobiology

Unit 2B test 3

QuestionAnswer
What kinds of effects occur at higher doses and that increase the chances of developing cancer? Stochastic
What effects are dose related? Nonstochastic
Name some early nonstochastic somatic effects. Nausea, fatigue, erythema, epilation, blood disorders, intestinal disorders, decreased sperm count, CNS injury
What are three types of tissues that are affected immediately by irradiation? Skin, gonads, bone marrow
What term is described when a part of a body and not the whole body is irradiated, it takes a higher dose to produce a response? Local tissue damage
The lowest layer of epidermis consists of what kind of cell? Basal cell
T/F: stem cells are undifferentiated cells which are basal cells. True
What is the first observable biologic response to radiation? Erythema
What does SED50 mean? The dose required to affect 50% of the people irradiated
What is the SED50 for humans? In Gy? 500 rads or 5 Gy
T/F: skin cancer usually begins with development of radiodermitis. True
Where are crypt cells located? Depressions located between villi in the small intestine
What is the main function of the villi? Absorption
Which cell's function is to provide new cells to replace the epithelium? Mucosal crypt cells
What does ARS stand for? Acute radiation syndrome
Out of nonstochastic and stochastic, which one involves when the dose increases, the probability of developing cancer also increases? Stochastic
Out of stochastic and nonstochastic, which one is dose related? Nonstochastic
Stochastic effects are also known as? Probabilistic, cancerous effects
Nonstochastic effects are also known as? Deterministic, dose dependent
What kind of curves don't pass thru the origin? Threshold
What kind of curves are there? *linear threshold *linear nonthreshold *linear quadratic nonthreshold *sigmoid threshold
Which curve is related to low LET radiation doses? Linear quadratic non threshold
Which curve is related to high dose fluoro doses and in radiation therapy? Sigmoid threshold
What term describes "no level of radiation can produce no harm or effects"? Nonthreshold
What is the period in ARS that normally doesn't show any symptoms but there is still possible biological damage? Latent period
What are three main groups of the manifest stage of ARS? 1) hemapoietic 2) GI syndrome 3) CNS syndrome
Is ARS nonstochastic or stochastic? Nonstochastic
At what dose does the prodromal stage begin at? 1 Gy
In rads, what is the minimum dose to start developing hemapoietic? 30 rads
How long does the latent stage last for hemapoietic? Minutes to days
At what exposure does the GI syndrome occur at? More than 10 Gy or 1,000 rads
At what stage during the GI syndrome do the crypt cells start to die? Latent period
Created by: mokapis