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Criminal Justice 1-5

Chapters 1-5 Vocab

the sum total of society's activities to defend itself against the actions it defines as criminal Criminal Justice
set of facts that would lead a reasonable person to believe that an accused person committed the offense in question; the minimum evidence requirement for an arrest, according to the Fourth Amendment Probable Cause
rule prohibiting use of illegally obtained evidence in a court of law Exclusionary Rule
suspicion (short of probable cause) that a person has been or may be engaged in the commission of a crime Reasonable Suspicion
warning that explains the rights of an arrestee, and that police recite at the time of the arrest or prior to interrogation Miranda warning
preview of a trial held in court before a judge, in which the prosecution must produce sufficient evidence for the case to proceed to trial Preliminary hearing
panel of 16-21 citizens who screen the prosecution's evidence, in secret hearings, to decide whether someone should be formally charged with a crime Grand Jury
case in which there is evidence that would warrant the conviction of the defendant unless otherwise contradicted; a case that meets evidentiary requirements for grand jury indictment Prima Facie Case
accusation against a criminal defendant rendered by a grand jury on the basis of evidence constituting a prima facie case Indictment
accusation against a criminal defendant prepared by a prosecuting attorney Information
system for the judicial determination of a relatively firm sentence based on specific aggravating or mitigating circumstances Sentencing Guidelines
alternative to imprisonment, allowing a person found guilty to stay in the community, under conditions and with supervision Probation
punishments or other dispositions imposed instead of the principal sanctions currently in use, such as imprisonment or probation Alternative Sanctions
supervised conditional release of a convicted prisoner before expiration of the sentence of imprisonment Parole
rate at which the numbers decreas in teh course of the criminal process because persons are diverted out of the system Attrition (Mortality) Rate
prosecutors' power to try juveniles directly in adult criminal courts Direct File
criminal activities extending into, and violating the laws of, several countries Transnational Crimes
process of ancient origin by which an alleged offender is transferred from one sovereign country to another for trial Extradition
crimes, established largely by conventions, violative of international law including but not limited to crimes against the peace and security of humankind International Crimes
international agreement by which many nations commit themselves to common, legally binding obligations Convention
an agreement, usually among two sovereign states, binding them to abide by common standards and to enforce them Treaty
power of a sovereign state to make and enforce its own laws. Also, the power granted to a court to adjudicate matters in dispute within irs competence and territory Jurisdiction
use of armed force by a state against the sovereignty or territory of another state, inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations; an international crime Aggression
international crime defined by convention and consisting of specific acts of violence committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, sthnice, racial, cultural, or religious group Genocide
established by the United Nations, ad hoc (temporary) criminal courts created to try defendants accused of crimes under international law. A permanent International Criminal Court was agreed upon in 1996 International Criminal Court
consist of murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts done against any civilian population, or persecution on political, racial, or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried out in execution Crimes Against Humanity
the use or threat of violence directed at people of governments to punish them for past action or to bring about a change of policy that is to the terrorist's liking Terrorism
the killing of one person by another Homicide
unjustified, unexcused killing of another human being Criminal Homicide
killing done with premeditation and deliberation or, by statute, in the presence of other aggravating circumstances 1st Degree Murder
killing doen with intent to cause death but without premeditation and deliberation 2nd Degree Murder
criminal liability for murder for one who participates in a felony that is dangerous to life and causes the death of another Felony Murder
intentionally but without malice causing the death of another person, as in the heat of passion Voluntary Manslaughter
unintentionally but recklessly causing the death of another by consciously taking a grave risk Involuntary Manslaughter
the murder of multiple victims, in one act or transaction, by one perpetrator or a group of perpretrators Mass Murder
killing of several victims over a period of time Serial Murder
unlawful offer or attempt with force or violence to hurt another Assault
attack that inflicts little or no physical harm on the victim Simple Assault
attack on a person in which the assailant inflicts serious harm or uses a deadly weapon Aggravated Assault
the taking of the property of another out of his or her presence by means of force and violence or the threat thereof Robbery
trespassory taking and carrying away of personal property belonging to another with the intent to deprive the owner of the property permanently Larceny
stealing of goods from stores or markets Shoplifting
acquisition of the property of another through deception Fraud
the pursuit of illegal activites through the use of advanced electronic media High-tech Crime
according to common law, the nighttime breaking and entering of the dwelling house of another, with the intention to commit a crime or larceny therein; a felony Burglary
the malicious burning of the dwelling house of another, or the burning of other structures or even personal property Arson
a violation of the law committed by a person or group of persons in the course of an otherwise respected and legitimate occupation or business enterprise White-collar Crime
practice of tradinga client's shares of stock frequently to generate large commissions Churning
use of material, nonpublic financial information about securities to obtain unfair advantage Insider Trading
brokers who have a stake in a particular security make misleading or false statements to clients to give the impression that the price of the stock is about to rise, creating an artificial demand for it Stock Manipulation
operations run by stock manipulatiors who, through deception and misleading sales techniques, seduce unsuspecting and uninformed individuals into buying stocks in obscure and often poorly financed corporations Boiler Rooms
scam designed to take advantage of loopholes in the bankruptcy laws Bankruptcy Fraud
the act of causing a consumer to surrender money through deceit or a misrepresentation of a material fact Consumer Fraud
the conversion (misappropriation) of property or money with which one is entrusted or for which one has a fiduciary responsibility Embezzlement
criminal act committed by one or more employees of a corporation that is subsequently attributed to the organization itself Corporate Crime
Congress passed this law in 1890 to prohibit an contract, conspiracy, or combination of business interests in restraint of foreign or interstate trade Sherman Antitrust Act
program under the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 to protect witnesses who testify in court by relocating them and assigning them new identities Federal Witness Protection Program
the eight major crimes included in Part I of the UCR: Criminal homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson Index Crimes
condition in which a person has no sense of responsibility; shows disregard for truth; is insincere; and feels no sense of shame, guilt, or humiliation Psychopathy
crime results when the same materialistic goals are held out to all members of society without giving them equal means to achieve them Strain Theory
a subdivision within the dominant culture that has its own norms, beliefs, and values Subculture
deviance results when social controls are weakened or break down, so that individuals are not motivated to conform to them Social Control
explanation of deviance in terms of the way a person acquires a negative identity, such as "addict," and is forced to suffer the consequences of outcast status Labeling Theory
model of crime in which the criminal justice system is seen as being used by the ruling class to control the lower class Conflict Theory
theory that crime is the result of a struggle for power and resources between owners of capital and workers Radical Theory
law as developed in England and later in the United States on the basis of court decisions (precedents) and as supplemented by legislation Common Law
principle that every crime must be clearly defined by common law or legislation prior to its commission Legality
guilty mind; awareness of wrongdoing. Intention to commit a criminal act, or recklessness Mens Rea
wrongs that are merely prohibited Mala Prohibita
offenses deemed inherently evil Mala in Se
wrong committed by one person against another, other than mere violation of a contract, which entitles the victim to compensation Tort
serious crime, subject to punishment of one year of more in prison, or to capital punishment Felony
crime less serious than a felony and subject to a maximum of one year in jail of a fine Misdemeanor
infraction of the law for which normally only a fine can be imposed Violation
defenses in which the law authorizes the violation of another law within limits of proportionality Justifications
act or omission constituting a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in the commission of a crime Criminal Attempt
criminal liability of all those who aid the perpetrator of an offense Accessoryship
perpetrator of a criminal act Principal
person who helps another to commit a crime Accomplice
agreement among two or more persons to commit a crime, making each guilty of conspiracy and all other crimes committed in furtherance of the conspiracy Conspiracy
group of private citizens taking the law into their own hands by tracking down criminals and punishing them Vigilante Group
federal law enforcement officer of the U.S. Marshal Service; formally, federal law enforcement officer in territories Marshal
torturing a suspect to gain information Third Degree
unit of a police department responsible for the functions associated with the primary law enforcement mission Operations Bureau
law enforcement functions of a police department Line Functions
unit of a police department that provides technical services to assist in the execution of line functions, such as keeping records Service Bureau
unit of a police department responsible for the management of the department as an organization; includes personnel, finance, and research and development Administration Bureau
department responsible for receiving and investigating charges against the police Internal Affairs
territory covered by a police officer on patrol; derived from hunters "beating" the bushes for a game Beat
collection of departmental directives governing the performance of duties Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Manual
use of DNA as a technique for identifying suspects Genetic Fingerprinting
Created by: hermionepippin
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