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Geology Exam Review

Liquefaction Conversion of soil into a fluid-like mass during an earthquake. Mud comes through the cracks in the ground.
Richter Scale Based on the amplitude of the largest earthquake wave recorded and the distance from the focus. (Works best for California)
Moment Magnitude Scale Based on amplitude of different seismic waves, types of rock, more info. It is more accurate and universally accepted than the Richter scale.
What can Ground shaking cause? It can: Disrupt electrical stations, destroy water and gas mains (causing fires), landslides, damaging highways, flooding, etc.
How can we help prepare for an earthquake? Anchor buildings to their foundations, use structural steel when building, or isolate a building from the ground (shock absorbers)
Tsunami Uplift of the seafloor will push a large volume of water upward. The mound of water then collapses to create a tsunami. Often occur after earthquakes.
How can we predict an earthquake short-term? Foreshocks, tilt or elevation, monitoring ground distortion, changes in groundwater levels
Why is long-term prediction of earthquakes important? You can strengthen building codes, modify zoning codes, position relief supplies, and prepare "first-responders"
Focus Where the earthquake originated in the crust
Epicenter The point above the focus, on the surface where the earthquake occurred
Contact Metamorphism localized, caused by heat from an igneous intrusion, uniform stress, occurs at low pressure and high temperature Ex: Hornfels
Confining Pressure (uniform) Stress is equal from all sides
Differential Pressure (directed) Stress is not equal from all sides. (Forms foliation)
Regional Metamorphism Caused by heat, fluids and differential stress, triggered by convergent plate collisions or at mid-ocean ridges, occurs at a high pressure and a low temperature, rocks become harder and more compact Ex: Gneiss
Foliation Platy layers caused by differential stress Ex: Slate
Aftershocks Smaller earthquakes that occur in the same area after the main earthquake
P-Waves Primary waves, first to be detected, fastest, compression/extension
S-Waves Secondary waves, slower, can only move through solids
Surface Waves Most destructive, slowest waves, rocks move in all directions at once (complex motion)
Triangulation Must have at least 3 seismic stations. The three circles intersect at the epicenter.
Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale Qualitative, descriptive, good for historic earthquakes
Regression Water pulls back from the land (drop in sea level)
Fossil Fuels All are raw materials from organic matter
Coal Formed from land/swamp plants in bogs or wetlands
Oil Formed from phytoplankton in big warm lakes/tropical oceans
Is it easier to form a coal deposit or an oil deposit? Coal
Bituminous Coal Higher sulfur content (produces more heat than low sulfur coal)
Fracking Getting oil from the source instead of from the reservoir rock
What are the two highest suppliers of oil to the US? Mexico and Canada
Deformation Involves the application of force to change the shape of the rocks (often causes folds)
How do rocks respond to stress? Fault, Rotation, or Strain/Stress
Do temperature and pressure increase with depth? Yes. (Geothermal gradient)
How does the rate of strain affect the rock's behavior? (Rapid vs. Slow) Rapid build-up= rock breaks (fractures and faults are produced), brittle behavior Slow build-up: rock bends and folds, flows, ductile behavior
Brittle Behavior Low temperature, shallow depths, low confining stress, high strain rates (rapid), harder rocks break more easily
Ductile Behavior High temperature, deep depth, high confining stress, low strain rate (slow), softer minerals are more likely to flow
What are the main types of differential stress? Compressional, Extensional (tension), Shear
Compression Pushing together
Tension Pulling apart
Shear Sliding past each other
Joint Crack where the rock is pulled apart
Fault Where rocks slip past each other (Vertical faults are planar)
Strike Where two planes intersect creating a line of intersection between the fault plane and the horizontal surface
Dip Tilt of the plane
Strike-Slip Fault Movement where the fault is parallel to the dip or tilt of the plane (Does not cause tsunamis)
Dip-Slip Fault Parallel to the dip or tilt of the plane (causes tsunamis)
Oblique Slip Fault Both perpendicular and parallel to strike, both types of movement
Normal fault Type of dip-slip fault, happens at divergent boundaries, hanging wall goes down in respect to the footwall, (extension), younger rocks over older
Reverse fault Type of dip-slip fault, happens at convergent boundaries, hanging wall goes up in respect to the footwall (compression), older rocks over younger
Thrust fault Type of Reverse fault where fault plane is nearly flat/horizontal
Anticline Arch-like fold formed by compressional stress
Syncline Trench-like fold formed by compressional stress, more ductile behavior
Basin Formed from a syncline
Dome Formed from an anti-cline
Paleoseismology Dig a trench and look for layers of rock that have been moved by fault movement during an earthquake. Find layers with remains of organic material that you can date
Seismic gaps Segments of a fault that have not produced an earthquake. Faults are locks, higher probability of producing an earthquake
What does the US use water the most for? Thermoelectric power and irrigation
Water table Where water is the highest
Aquifer Saturated rock through which water can flow
Artesian Aquifer An aquifer that is bounded above and below by impermeable beds.
What does a good aquifer need? High porosity (lots of holes) and high permeability (connected holes)
Geyser Springs that erupt
Spring Where groundwater naturally discharges from an aquifer (often hillsides or at faults)
What does metamorphism do? Creates new minerals, new textures (grain-size or layering), chemical composition can be changed through liquids
Where does heat for metamorphism come from? Friction, igneous intrusions, meteors, geothermal gradient (heat speeds up metamorphism and dries out the rocks)
Is metamorphism a solid-state process? Yes
When does deposition occur? When the transport is interrupted (wind or water slows down, stream flows into an ocean or lake)
What two things are needed for lithification to occur? Compaction and Cementation
Graded Bedding Finer grained materials remain in suspension whereas heavier ones sink to the bottom. (Flash floods, high energy to low energy)
Rhythmic Bedding Caused by changing conditions related to variations in climate, alternated between clay and silt or sand
Cross-bedding Typical of sand dunes, layers are tilted (not parallel)
Mudcracks Water evaporates and the ground shrinks which causes mudcracks
Land subsidation When the ground shrinks due to lack of water
Glaciers= well sorted or poorly sorted? Poorly
Evaporites Formed by minerals that crystallize as water evaporates like halite and gypsum
Transgression Water advances onto land (rise in sea-level)
"Shock" Metamorphism Heat and stress produced by a meteor impact, localized
Fault Zone Metamorphism Deformation related to shear along fault, localized, frictional heating, breaks up into smaller grains, differential stress
Earthquake Vibrations traveling through the earth caused by the sudden release of built-up strain within the Earth's crust
Elastic Rebound theory When rocks break they return to their original shape even though they have moved position
Alluvial Fan A low gently sloping mass of sediment shaped like an open fan deposited by a stream where it exits, often in desert environments
Delta A nearly flat tract of land formed by deposition of sediment at the mouth of a river or stream
Hydrolisis Produces clay, decomposition reaction involving water
Tributaries vs. Trunk Streams Tributaries are smaller, trunk streams are the main streams
Watershed or drainage basin region that feeds water into a stream
Dendritic Pattern Flatland streams
Radial Patter Flows like spokes off a wheel
Structurally controlled Underlying folds of bedrock control where streams flow
From the headwater to mouth the depth and width ___________ increase
Sediment and water volume ________ increases (because the tributaries add water and sediment)
Velocity is more variable, but often fastest in the headwater area. T/F T
As you go downstream there is bigger and rougher grain sediment. T/F F (It is finer)
Braided streams so much sediment that the stream must deposit while flowing
Cut banks Strong current intersects with the side of the stream channel (a lot of erosion)
Point bars Deposit of sediment because flow is slower
Base level Usually sea level
Levees Raised embankments along a river (can be manmade or natural)
Storm water retention ponds Help keep floods from happening, there is one near meek
Sinkholes Where ceilings of caves collapse, a closed circular depression
High grade regional metamorphism of granite produces: Gneiss
Contact metamorphism of limestone produces: Marble
Medium-grade regional metamorphism of shale produces: Schist
Created by: 1418613575