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How does Africa as a continent compare to other continents? How much land does it have, and how many miles is it long, and across? 2nd largest, 11.8 million miles squared, 3x size of US, 23% of Earth's land
Does the altitude of the plateaus that make up Africa increase or decrease as you travel south? Increase as you travel South
Where are the tropical rain forests? How wet are they? What is the vegetation like, and what is the soil like? West and Central Africa, patches elsewhere Average 80" of rain, as high as 140-160" per year Home to 8,000 plant species and 80% of the world's primates Not much ground vegetation b/c of tall trees, iron found in the soil making it very red
Where is the tropical savanna? How wet is it? How many dry and wet seasons are there? What is the vegetation like here? Backwards "C" that goes around the rain forest Rainfall averages 40-60" per year (wetlands) 20-40" (grasslands) Dry and wet seasons alternate with 2 of each per year The amount of rainfall determines the vegetation
What are some of the names of some national parks and game reserves in the tropical savanna? What is ecotourism, and what are the problems associated with it? Who are the Masai? Serengeti National Park, The Masai Mara Game Park, using the environment for tourism, changes in the environment due to the amount of people Shepherds of goats, original people of Africa
What is the steppe like (soil, rain, vegetation, etc.)? 10-20" per year, very stormy strips of vegetation with barren parts in-between subject to wind erosion
What is the Kalahari? Why might it be a desert or a steppe? Can get enough rain sometimes to be considered a steppe but other times does not receive enough and is a desert
Is there a mountain range in Africa? no linear mountain range
What are the characteristics of the Congo River? 2nd to the Amazon in amount of water dumped into the ocean 2nd longest in Africa in Central Africa
Do most African rivers have steady flows? Are they easy to navigate? What is Victoria Falls? No, No, On the Zambezi River, 1 mile wide, drops 860 feet
How do the large lakes form in Africa? How big is Lake Victoria (2nd largest freshwater lake in the world)? Rivers flow inland creating the large lakes
What is one reason why Africa was referred to as the Dark Continent? How did Europeans perceive Africa? the inlands were unexplored seen as dangerous darker skinned people
What was Kush? Where was it located, and what was its capital? When did it exist, and why do people think it fell apart? 2400 BC South of Egypt Meroe (Capital) reasons unknown, soil erosion, deforestation
What was Zimbabwe? What was Great Zimbabwe? What types of trade was it involved in? Why is it impressive? When did it exist? 11th century AD, Shona people Expert stone workers Great Zimbabwe dominated Southern Africa until 15th century traded gold and poetry
Which Europeans made contact first? How did the colonization of the Americas change things? Portuguese about 1420 Slavery trading began with American colonies
How many people were taken as slaves from 1500s to 1800s, and why was it disruptive? When did the slave trade end? How did it change after this? 8-12 million Africans transported Disrupted the societies Ended in 1807
What was AFrica like on the eve of colonization? Relative peace Traded goods 4 Major Languages, Trade Languages Black pride, kinship
How many countries were formed? 40
Who was Leopold II, and what did he do? What was the Scramble for Africa? of Belgium, signed Africa to treaties without informing what they said, formed a colony from this land 76x bigger than Belgium "Leopold's Congo"j The Scramble for Africa was European countries coming in and claiming as much as Africa as they could
What was the 1884 Berlin Conference? 15 nations, no African, ruled on how to split up Africa
What was indirect rule? Why was it bad? day to day affairs were left to traditional leaders, but the country was still under European rule and mainly controlled by Europe did not teach countries how to run themselves set up for dictatorships
What impact did British have on the economy of Nigeria? first experience with any wage work
Was colonial rule all bad? What are some positive/negative aspects? Ended harmful religious and witchcraft practices Negativity towards Christianity -Artificial borders -Artificial government -Artificial separation and combination of people -Poorly developed
When did most decolonization occur, and why did it happen then? What was the first British colony in Africa to gain independence, and when? After WWII ended in 1945, many European countries were bankrupt Ghana, March 1957
What happened in Kenya? 60k white residents, 3,000 owned the best farmlands 1952-56 Mau-Mau Rebellion, unsuccessful, 100 whites died, 10,000 blacks Gained Independence in 1963
What was the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) and where was it? Southern Rhodesia 250,000 white residents refused to leave during decolonization formed Unilateral Declaration of Independence
What happened to Africans during the Cold War? Were African leaders committed to communism? Cold War provided setting for decolonization Africans found socialism attractive since most needed money
Who were the first Europeans to settle South Africa, and what was the first settlement they established? the Dutch, Cape Town
Who were the Boers/Afrikaners? What was the Great Trek? What was the Boer War (1899-1902) and why was it particularly "ugly"? mix of Dutch and African people Afrikaners fled from British rule War over the land the Boer's had settled on, contained gold and diamonds, use of concentration camps 20,000 died
When was South Africa united? What was their first law? 1910 1913 Natives Land Act
When did Afrikaners gain political power? What was "Apartheid"? What were the four racial categories, and what did it mean to be seperated this way? What were the Pass Laws? 1948 Nationalist Party wins Arfrikaans for "separateness" White, Asians (Indians), coloured (mixture black & white), black had lots of inequalities one must carry a pass that had your race, address, & occupation, any white could as a black for it
What were the "Homelands"? When did the country achieve majority rule? jobless of South Africa sent here April 1994
How does Sub-Saharan Africa compare with other parts of the world concerning HIV/AIDS? What country is the highest? 70% of all AIDS cases in the world Swaziland
What is the main cause of death in Sub-Saharan Africa? AIDS
How does poverty play a role in AIDS? exacerbated by poverty, drugs cost $300 per year
How does the disease affect life expectancy? 49 years
How many refugees are in Sub-Saharan Africa and how much of worldwide refugees does this represent? 1/3 of all the world
Created by: lsatterf



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