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AP Psych AP Exam

case study studies 1 person or a small group in depth
naturalistic observation observe in natural setting
correlation relationship between 2 variables
experimental research studies cause and effect
3 types of descriptive research survey, case study, naturalistic observation
hypothesis testable, declarative statement
3 parts of ethics for humans informed consent, scientific benefit outweighs harm, debrief
normal curve percentages in order (least to greatest) .1, 2, 14, 34
1(neuron firing) resting potential ready to go
2(neuron firing) dendrites recieve message nucleus begins firing
3(neuron firing) depolarization switch from negative to positive charge
2 elements in neuron firing potassium and sodium
4(neuron firing) threshold firing point
5(neuron firing) action potential neural impulse
6(neuron firing) release of neurotransmitters
7(neuron firing) hyperpolarization recharging of the neuron- can't fire
refractory period for neurons can't fire
8(neuron firing) reuptake take up extra neurotransmitters
AcH movement and memory
Seratonin mood, hunger, thirst
Dopamine thinking, percieving
Norepenephrin adrenaline
glutamate excitatory
GABA inhibitatory
agonist mimics
antagonist blocks
reuptake inhibitor neurotransmitter Seratonin
sensory neurons carry _ messages incoming
motor neurons carry _ messages outgoing
Endorphins pain control
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
interneurons 2 way
Peripheral Nervous System all but brain and spinal cord
autonomic nervous system automatic functions
somatic nervous system voluntary functions
parasympathetic nervous system calming
sympathetic nervous system excites
endocrine system glands
plasticity brain's ability to change
aphasia impairment of language
PET brain activity
MRI brain structures
EEG brain waves
transduction turning energy into neural impulses
absolute threshold minimum detection
difference threshold just noticable difference
signal detection no absolute threshold
sensory adaptation getting used to stimuli and not noticing it
top-down processing high level thinking- expectations of what to see
light wavelength hue
light amplitude brightness
tri-chromatic theory 3 cones= red, blue, green
opponent-process theory red&green, yellow&blue, black&white
place theory hairs that detect certain pitches
frequency theory hairs vibrate at different frequencies
conduction hearing loss structure damage
sensorimotor hearing loss hair damage
olfaction smell
gustation taste
5 types of taste sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
vestibular sense balance @ semicircular canal
kinesthesis movement
sensory interaction smell & taste
gestalt wholes
5 types of gestalt figure-ground, proximity, similarity, closure, continuity/connectedness
2 binocular cues retinal disparity & convergence
3 types of ESP telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition
telepathy read others' thoughts
clairvoyance know things about people in their presence
precognition predict the future
circadian rhythm 24 hour clock
Sleep stage 1 wave alpha
sleep stage 2 wave and addition alpha and sleep spindles
sleep stage 3 wave theta
sleep stage 4 wave delta
REM sleep wave beta
sleep apnea snoring
sonombulism sleep walking
dream theory wish fulfillment
(hypnosis) social-actor theory pretend roles
(hypnosis) dissociation split consciousness
addiction cycle of drugs (4) tolerance, dependence, addiction, withdrawl
2 depressants alcohol and opiates
2 stimulants caffine and cocaine
2 hallucinogens LSD and marijuana
Classical Conditioning stimulus --> response
acquisition learning process
extinction learning disappears
spontaneous recovery reappearance of learning
generalization respond to similar stimuli
discrimination don't respond to similar stimuli
operant conditioning reinforcement and punishment
positive reinforcement add like
negative reinforcement subtract dislike
immediate reinforcement right away
delayed reinforcement wait
primary reinforcers necessities
secondary reinforcers wants
continuous reinforcement everytime
partial reinforcement sometimes
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement set time
fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement set number of responses
variable interval schedule of reinforcement varying time
variable ratio schedule of reinforcement varying number of resopnses
shaping guiding behavior with reinforcers
positive punishment add dislike
negative punishment subtract like
modeling observe and imitating behavior
mirror neurons allow mimic behavior
learned helplessness caused by repeated aversive events
latent learning symbolic learning
insight sudden realization
intrinsic motivation for one's own self
extrinsic motivation for a reward
3 stages of memory sensory, short term, long term
3 processes of memory encoding, storage, retrieval
sensory memory size unlimited
short term memory size 7 +/- 2 items
chunking grouping
method of Loci locations
long term memory size unlimited
episodic memory events and facts
semantic memory meanings
procedural memory processes
recognition recognize (multiple choice)
recall know (essay)
serial position effect remember start and end
primacy in serial position effect beginning
recency in serial position effect end
retroactive interference (forgetting) new information interferes with old
proactive interference (forgetting) old information interferes with new
antrograde amnesia can't form new memories
retrograde amnesia can't remember old memories
long-term potentiation more learning makes more capacity
phonemes smallest unit of sound
morphemes smallest unit of meaning
two-word speech telegraphic speech
language needs 2 things syntax and semantics
syntax sentence structure
semantics meaning
prototype best representation
algorithms all possibilities
heuristics short cuts
availability heuristic first available explanation
representative heuristic based on prototype
convergent thinking one solution
schema mental group of similar objects
accommodate change prototype
mental set approach problem in a particular way
belief bias stick to belief after being discredited
intuition automatic
framing way a question is asked
drive reduction theory needs-->drives-->motivated to reduce drive
homeostasis biological balance
Yerkes-Dodson law perform better at moderate level of arousal
level 1 (base) hierarchy of needs physiological needs
level 2 hierarchy of needs safety
level 3 hierarchy of needs love and belonging
level 4 hierarchy of needs self-esteem
level 5 (top) hierarchy of needs self-actualization
lateral hypothalamus says eat
ventromedial hypothalamus says i'm full
set point theory ideal weight
sexual response cycle in order excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Management theory X workers are lazy, extrinsic
Management theory Y workers are self motivated if have responsibility
approach-approach conflict met conflict head on
approach-avoidance conflict avoid conflict
James-Lange theory of emotion physiological feeling --> emotion
Canon Bard theory of emotion physiological feeling and emotion at the same time
two-factor theory of emotion physiological feeling-->label-->emotion
facial feedback physical determines emotion
stress rating scale (SSRS) measured in life changing units (LCU)
General adaptation syndrom (GAS) 3 stages of stress alarm, resistance, exhaustion
type A personality competitive, hard working, agressive
type B personality easygoing, relaxed
prenatal stages conception, zygote, embryo, fetus
teratogens harms fetus
rooting reflex turn to find food
moro reflex startle-->fetal position
babinski reflex pull feet in
maturation order of development
Harry Harlow experiment monkey moms
Mary Ainsworth experiment children feeling secure
authoritarian parenting style rules
permissive parenting style no rules
authoritative parenting style rules but flexible
gender roles expected gender behaviors
gender identity personal sense of gender
gender schema society recipe for gender
temperment emotional reactivity
fluid intelligence speed of reasoning
crystallized intelligence knowledge
Freud's 3 parts of personality id, ego, superego
id unconscious (pleasure principle)
superego conscious (morals)
ego reality principle
defense mechanisms repression, denial, rationalization, displacement, projection
Adler inferiority complex
Jung's collective unconscious shared memories from human history
Raymond Catell (personality) 16 trait clusters
Big 5 (personality) acronym CANOE
CANOE stands for Conscientious, agreeable, neurotic, openness, extroversion
reciprocal determinism you get what you give
self efficacy willingness to stand up for self
internal locus of control determine own fate
external locus of control outside forces control
Roger's unconditional positive regard total acceptance of others
Projective tests provide ambiguous stimuli to show inner self
TAT test stories on photos
MMPI most used personality test
Barnum effect (personality) people fooled by generic descriptions
standardization (tests) scores are meaningful
reliable (tests) scores are consistent
2 ways to test reliability of test split half and test retest
validity (tests) test measures what its supposed to
criterion what makes a test valid
Spearman (intelligence) general intelligence (g)
general intelligence (g) specific mental abilities
Howard Gardner (intelligence) 8 intelligences
Robert Sternberg (intelligence) 3 intelligences
Sternberg's 3 intelligences analytical, practical, creative
Alfred-Binet mental age
Stanford-Binet test IQ test
IQ equation mental age/real age * 100
IQ below _ is disable eighty five
IQ above _ is gifted one hundred and fifteen
flynn effect (intelligence) rise in IQ scores over decades
Abnormal behavior must be (3ds) deviant, distressful, dysfunctional
DSM IV manual to diagnose disorders
part 1 of the DSM IV clinical disorder
last part of the DSM IV global assessment (1-100)
generalized anxiety disorder constant anxiety
phobia irrational fear
panic disorder panic attacks
OCD obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors
PTSD flashbacks and nightmares
Somatoform disorders somatic (bodily) symptoms without physical cause
Hypochondriasis thinks normal things are major symptoms
Conversion physical symptoms, no psychological basis
Dissociative disorders conscious awareness is separated
Amnesia forgetting
Fugue state lose sense of identity and wander away
DID (dissociative identity disorder) multiple personalities
Major depressive disorder depression for 2+ weeks
SAD (mood disorder) depression in winter
bipolar alternate between depression and mania
dysthymic depression for 2+ years
Schizophrenia 3 parts delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, inappropriate thoughts
delusions false beliefs (persecution/grandeur)
hallucinations hearing things/seeing things
flat effect emotionless
catatonia excitement or stupor
Antisocial personality disorder lack of conscience for wrongdoing
Philippe Pinel medical model
medical model diagnose, treat, cure
free association saying what comes to mind
resistance blocking anxiety bringing thoughts
transference transfer emotions to therapist
counter conditioning evoke a new response to a stimulus
systematic desensitization increase anxiety bringing stimuli
rational-emotive therapy combine cognitive and behavioral therapy
anti-anxity drug xanax
anti-depressant drug prozac
antipsychotic drug thorzine
drug for bipolar disorder lithium
attitude belief and feelings
mere exposure effect increased exposure = increased like
central persuasion deep/thoughtful
peripheral persuasion images
cognitive dissonance attitude and behavior should agree
attribution theory explain others' behaviors by situation and disposition
fundamental attribution error attribute behavior only to disposition
false-consensus effect overestimate others' agreement with us
self-serving bias behavior benefits me
just world bias the world is just and fair
ethocentrism our culture is better
superordinate goals overriding group goals
conformity adjust to fit the group
social facilitation stronger resopnse to simple task with others present
social loafing people in group exert less effort
group polarization discussion in the group
bystander effect less likely to help with others present
cerebral cortex information processing
corpus callosum connects hemispheres
thalamus sensory switchboard
hippocampus memory
hypothalamus maintenance activities and rewards/emotions
amygdala emotions
cerebellum movement and balance
reticular formation arousal
pons sleep and dreams
pituitary galnd endocrine system
medulla heartbeat and breathing
brainstem autonomic responses
frontal lobe personality and judgement
temporal lobe hearing
occipital lobe sight
parietal lobe touch and body position
sensory cortex body touch and movement
motor cortex voluntary movements
broca's area muscle movement in speech
wernicke's area language comprehension
angular gyrus reading
nodes of ranvier speed up
1 cornea (eye) protects eye
2 iris (eye) colored and controls size of pupil
3 pupil (eye) opening where light enters
4 lens (eye) focus light on the retina
5 retina (eye) contains rods and cones
rods neutral colors
cones bright colors
6 fovea (eye) central focal point
7 blind spot (eye) connects to the optic nerve
8 optic nerve (eye) connects to the brain
order of light into the eye cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, fovea, blind spot, optic nerve
order of sound into ear eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window, semicircular canals, cochlea, auditory nerve
eardrum vibrates
hammer, anvil, and stirrup concentrate vibrations
oval window entrance to cochlea
cochlea trigger neural impulses
auditory nerve connects to brain
Freud's development stages in order oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Piaget's development stages in order sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operations
sensorimotor (piaget) object permanence (0-2)
preoperational (piaget) conservation (2-6)
concrete operational (piaget) math (6-11)
formal operational (piaget) abstract logic (12-?)
infancy (erikson) trust vs mistrust
early childhood (erikson) autonomy vs shame
play age (erikson) initiative vs guilt
school age (erikson) industry vs inferiority
adolescence (erikson) identity vs confusion
early adulthood (erikson) intimacy vs isolation
adulthood (erikson) generativity vs stagnation
old age (erikson) integrity vs despair
Kohlberg's moral development stages in order preconventional, conventional, postconventional
preconventional (kohlberg) self-interest, rewards/punishment
conventional (kohlberg) what is expected
postconventional (kohlberg) rights and justice
Created by: jducttape