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S & P


What is a pure tone? The sound of only one frequency
What is the fundamental note? The greatest amplitude that is heard predominantly because it has a larger intensity.
What is loudness? physiological perception, depending on sound pressure, spectrum of the harmonics and physical duration.
Describe the missing fundamental. When a sounds overtones suggest a fundamental frequency but the sound lacks a component at the fundamental frequency itself. Thus, the sound perceptually sounds the same as the fundamental frequency.
What is Place Theory? Basilar membrane vibrates @ frequency of stimulus -> cells fire at this location -> leads to pitch perception. But humans can discriminate between 1000-1003 Hz, so this is only an adequate explanation for > 5000 Hz
What is Timing Theory? Neurons fire synchronous with frequency of stimulus (Volley Principle). Neurons cannot fire APs at high freq. Adequate explanation for stimuli < 1000 Hz
Who developed the Place Theory of pitch perception? George von Bekesy
Explain the significance of music training. Research has shown music training early on in life benefits the brain later on in life. Trained musicians show a 25% increase in the region of the auditory cortex that responds to piano tones, compared to non-musicians.
Describe the Volley Priniple Groups of neurons of the auditory system respond to a sound by firing APs slightly out of phase with one another so that when combined, a greater frequency of sound can be encoded and sent to the brain to be analyzed (Phase locking)
What about stimuli from 1000-5000 Hz? This is the range of our greatest sensitivity. The best explanation for this range is combination of the 2 theories of pitch perception.
In sound localization, what is Inter-aural sound delay processed by? The superior olivary nucleus.
How are differences in interaural sound intensity explained? Acoustic shadow cast by the head.
What are the directions in sound localization? Elevation (vertical) and Azimuth (horizontal)
Describe the auditory pathways. Auditory nerve -> cochlear nucleus -> superior olivary nucleus -> inferior colliculus -> medial geniculate nucleus -> Auditory cortex. ~Auditory structures are bilateral & can cross over between sides~
What is the speed of sound & light? ~Sound - 340 km/sec in air ~Light - 300,000 km/sec in air
Created by: cassidylm34