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How do current psychologists define "personality"? All the consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from and is similar to that of others, especially in social situations.
Traits A distinguishing character or quality that can be used to describe consistent behaviors in an individual
What is a new take on examining personality in traits research? In trying to describe someone's consistent behaviors, while also differentiating individuals, personality psychologist use either ideographic or nomothetic approach
What is the Idiographic approach? Studying personality by using detailed examinations of individuals. For example: freud's, jung's, or roger's work
What is Nomothetic approach? Studying personality by examining large groups and tendencies of these groups (behavioral, questionnaire, other methods) For example: the social cognitive model, traits, etc
How many traits do we have? It depends because when defining a group of individuals, the amount of personality traits that can be used to describe these people can range from over two traits and only one or two defining traits might be necessary to describe an individual
Who was the first trait psychologist? Gordon Allport who attended Harvard as an undergraduate and majored in psychology. He met with Freud after graduating while visiting one of his brothers in Vienna where he had his breakthroughh moment. Presented his theories of personality and became know
States Momentary reactions to situations that are a direct result of the social environment
Traits Stable behaviors that occur across situations and time
Cardinal Traits Traits that are pervasive enough in that they tend to dominate one's personality or even life
Central Traits Traits that cover a number of behaviors, but are not the dominant feature of one's life
Secondary Dispositions Traits that manifest themselves only on rare occasions, and play a minimal role in one's life
What is the Big Five attempt? When looking to determine the number of traits needed to define a person's overall personality, many psychologist looked to use a common concept in coming up with traits
What is Parsimony aka Occam's Razor? Results should be explained through the most consistent and simplest conclusion that can be drawn in the context of the situation
What did Allport and Odbert to in terms of working on the Big 5? Looked in dictionaries to find every word in the English language that related to personality and 18,000 words were found
What did Cattell do in terms of working on the big 5? Compared words for synonyms and antonyms and found that this search reduced the list down to 35 traits
What did Costa and McCrae do in terms of working on the big 5? Conducted "factor analyses" to see which remaining words or traits emerged and found the ones that overlapped with each other in response frequency which left them with a total of 5 personality traits
What are the Big 5? (O)penness to experiences, (C)onscientousness, (E)xtraversion, (A)greeableness, (N)euroticism
Openness to experience a tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences and new ideas
Conscienctousness A tendency to show self-discipline, to be dutiful, and to strive for achievement and competence
Extraversion A tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of others
Agreeableness A tendency to be compassionate toward others
Neuroticism A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions relatively easily
/What are some shortcomings of the big 5 Not always a good predictor of other cultures, might have too few variables, might have too many variables, might not be a good predictor of specific behaviors
What is the stability in traits as we age? As we age, there is less neuroticism and openness to experience. There is more agreeableness and conscientiousness. More stability as we age.
What is the stability in traits across generations? There are changes in extraversion and openness over the generations and impact of social movements
What are the number of traits over time? In Children there is the big 7 and in the elderly, there is the big 3
What are the determinants of personality traits? Genes such as twin studies that have shown us that genes have a large impact on our personality .
What is the "learning approach" to personality? Our personality is the result of our recognized membership in groups, our roles in these groups, and the norms of the groups
What is the anchoring effect Our judgement of personality levels can be impacted by those around us and our own experiences
Created by: 100001362536770