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Chapter 4~ Sensation and Perception

Audition the sense of act of hearing
Bottom-up Processing analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
Conduction Hearing Loss hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Cones retinal receptors that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well lit conditions; detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
Depth Perception the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
Feature Detectors nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
Figure-ground the organization of the visual fields into objects that stand out from their surroundings
Frequency the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
Frequency Theory in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, this enabling us to sense its pitch
Gestalt an organized whole; the tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Kinesthesis the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
Middle Ear the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
Monocular depth cues, such as interposition, relative height, relative size, relative motion, light and shadow, and linear perspective available to either eye alone
Opponent-Processing Theory the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black)
Optic Nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Parapsychology the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis (telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition)
Phi Phenomenon an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
Pitch a tone's experienced highness or lowness, depends on frequency
Psychophysics the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
Retinal Disparity a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity (distance) between the two images, the closer the object
Rods retinal receptors that detect white, black, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
Sensorineural Hearing Loss hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves
Signal Detection Theory a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background information (noise)
Subliminal below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Top-down Processing information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
Weber's Law the principle that, to be perceiveed as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage
Created by: rd117084