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WGU FHT5 FOT: Human Development and Learning

Cognitive Development Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated
Piaget's cognitive development theory Schemes are adapted through assimilation and accommodation. Development precedes learning. Four stages, sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational & formal operational
Schemes Mental patterns that guide behavior.
Adaptation The process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation.
Assimilation Understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes. A baby bangs objects on a surface. They learn about the object by banging it on the table.
Accommodation Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations. A baby is forced to change the scheme of banging because the egg broke when it banged the egg on the table. Some things are banged hard others soft.
Constructivism View of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality. Children continually construct knowledge through assimilating and accommodating new info.
Sensorimotor stage (birth-age 2) stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their senses and motor skills. "Object Permanence" and gradual progression from reflexive to goal-directed behavior.
Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) Stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind. Development of the ability to use symbols to represent objects in the world. Egocentric and centered thinking. Lack concept of conservation ie. height of milk in a glass means more milk.
Concrete operational stage (ages 7-11) Stage where children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations. Develop reversibility, seriation, logic, decentered, less egocentrism. No abstract.
Formal operational stage (ages 11-adulthood) Stage in which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and can reason logically. Problems can be solved by use of systematic experimentation. Can monitor their own thinking.
Conservation The concept that certain properties of an object remain the same regardless of changes in other properties. Pre-operational stage children don't understand that ten blocks scrunched together is the same as ten blocks spread apart.
Centration Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation. ie. children centered on the height of the glass of milk assuming that a tall skinny glass has more milk than a short wide glass...centered on the height.
Egocentric Believing that everyone views the world the way exactly as you do.
Inferred reality The meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information. ie. showing children a red car and then adding a filter that makes the car appear black. 3yo in pre-operational stage say black 6yo in concrete stage say red.
Seriation Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, volume. Develop this task during concrete operational stage.
Transitivity A skill learned during the concrete operational stage when children can mentally arrange and compare objects. Sam is taller than Mary, Mary is taller than Fred. Therefore Sam is taller than Fred.
Class inclusion Developed during the concrete operational stage. Children can think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and relationships among its subordinates. ie. are there more boys or children in the class?
Developmentally appropriate education Instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children rather that to their age alone.
Piaget's theory -vs- Vygotsky's theory of development Piaget believed development preceded learning. Vygotsky believed learning preceded development.
Self-regulation The ability to think and solve problems without the help of others.
Private speech Childrens' self talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech.
Zone of proximal development Level of development immediately above a person's present level. Defined by what the child can do independently and what the child can do with the aid of an adult or more competent peer.
Scaffolding Support for learning and problem solving; might include hints, reminders, encouragement or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
Bruner's 4 themes of the Process of Education 1. Structure 2. Readiness 3. Intuition 4.Motivation
The role of structure in learning and how it may be made central in learning (Bruner) the teaching and learning of structure rather that simply the mastery of facts and techniques.
Readiness for learning (Bruner) the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development. Underpins the idea of spiral curriculum.
Intuitive & Analytical Thinking (Bruner) a much neglected but essential feature of productive thinking.looked to how teachers and schools might create the conditions for intuition to flourish. Encourage students to use intuition to solve problems
Motives for learning (Bruner) interest in the material to be learned is the best stimulus to learning, rather than such external goals as grades..must be based as much as possible upon the arousal of interest
Social Constructivism emphasizes the importance of culture and context in understanding what occurs in society and constructing knowledge based on this understanding (ie learning Hamlet thru group puppet shows)
Cognition the process of awareness or thought, act of knowing, obtaining knowledge
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development self-regulation, private speech, zone of proximal development, scaffolding, cooperative learning, learning precedes development
Metacognition the overseeing and regulation of cognitive processes, awareness of thinking, monitoring what you are learning
Metacognitive strategies you might teach children "Tell us how you solved that problem", "What was going on in your head when coming up with that answer?" "What was your strategy?", "How else could you have done that?"
reflection (Dewey) active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends
reflection (simple definition) skill of asking self-evaluative questions
Dewey's stages of reflection (five) Suggestions(possible solution), assessment of difficulty, use of one suggestion after another, mental elaboration of the idea,testing the hypothesis (imaginative action)
Boud, Keogh and Walker's stages of reflection (three) returning to experience, attending to feelings, evaluating experience
Example of using self-evaluation or reflection to help students in a classroom "Is what your doing helping you get your work done?" "What is the first step you should take to accomplish the task?", "How do you think you could have done better?"
Stages of reflective learning 1. Noticing 2. Making sense and making meaning 3. Working with meaning 4. Transformative learning
Stages of reflective learning - student task - Noticing Able to recall taught material
Stages of reflective learning - student task - Making sense and making meaning 1. Able to demonstrate the meaning of taught material. 2. Able to use taught material in new and concrete situations
Stages of reflective learning - student task - Working with meaning Able to break down taught material into its component parts
Stages of reflective learning - student task - Transformative learning 1. Able to join taught material to form a whole 2. Able to judge and value material, for its own worth and its greater relevance
Down Syndrome -Description -Genetic Influences -Environmental Influences chromosomal disorder that includes a combination of birth defects: mental retardation, characteristic facial features, heart defects. caused by extra genetic material from chromosome 21, cell may divide incorrectly, poor folic acid, mother's age
Cerebral Palsy -Description -Genetic Influences -Environmental Influences group of conditions that affect movement, balance and posture. usually is caused by factors that disrupt normal development of the brain before birth.caused by injuries to the developing brain, such as a fetal stroke, prematurity, severe jaundice
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome -Description -Genetic Influences -Environmental Influences mental retardation; learning, emotional and behavioral problems; and defects involving the heart, face and other organs. Caused my mother's consumption of alcohol during preg.
Autism -Description -Genetic Influences -Environmental Influences disorder that affects how a child functions in several areas, including speech, social skills and behavior. at least a dozen genes on different chromosomes may contribute. Certain infections that occur before birth such as rubella can contribute
Psychosocial theory A set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development
Psychosocial crisis According to Erikson, the set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through each of the eight life stages.
Erikson's Stage 1 of personal & social development (birth - 18 months) Trust vs. mistrust. develop an essential trustfulness of others as well as a fundamental sense of one's own trustworthiness.
Erikson's Stage 2 of personal & social development (18 months - 3 years) Autonomy vs. doubt. strive towards the ability to do things for themselves. Desire for power and independence. Have the dual desire to hold on and to let go.
Erikson's Stage 3 of personal & social development (3 years - 6 years) Initiative vs. guilt. Vigorous exploration of their physical and social behavior. Growing sense of initiative.
Erikson's Stage 4 of personal & social development (6 years - 12 years) Industry vs. Inferiority. Desire to make things. Success brings a sense of industry, a good feeling about oneself and one's abilities. Failure creates a neg self image.
Erikson's Stage 5 of personal & social development (12 years - 18 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion. Who am I? Increasingly turn away from parents and toward peer groups. Rapidly changing physiology, coupled with pressures to make decisions about future education and career creates the need to redefine psychosocial identity.
Erikson's Stage 6 of personal & social development (Young adulthood) Intimacy vs. Isolation. Sharing of your life with one another. Ready to form new relationships of trust and intimacy w/ another individual.
Erikson's Stage 7 of personal & social development (Middle adulthood) Generativity vs. self-absorption. Interest in establishing and guiding the next generation. Should continue to grow, if not, a sense of stagnation and interpersonal impoverishment develops leading to self absorption and self-indulgence.
Erikson's Stage 8 of personal & social development (Late adulthood) Integrity vs despair. Acceptance of accomplishment, failures, and ultimate limitations brings w/ it a sense of integrity. Despair can occur in those who regret the way they have led their lives.
James Marcia's Four Identity Statuses Foreclosure, Identity diffusion, Moratorium, Identity achievement
Marcia's Identity Status: Foreclosure An adolescent's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, not on his or her own.
Marcia's Identity Status: Identity Diffusion Inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self. Adolescent has found neither an occupational direction nor an ideological commitment.
Marcia's Identity Status: Moratorium Experimentation with occupational and ideological choices without definite commitment.
Marcia's Identity Status: Identity Achievement A state of consolidation reflecting conscious, clear cut decisions concerning occupation and ideology.
Heteronomous morality In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads to automatic punishment.
Autonomous morality In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which a person understands that people make the rules and that punishments are not automatic.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning Level I Preconventional: Stage 1-Punishment & Obedience Stage 2-Instrumental Relativist Level II Conventional: Stage 3-Good boy-Good girl Stage 4-Law & Order Level III Postconventional: level Stage 5- Social contract Stage 6-Universal Ethical Principle
Kohlberg's Preconventional Level of Morality Stages 1 & 2 of moral reasoning in which individuals make moral judgments in their own interests.
Kohlberg's Conventional Level of Morality Stages 3 & 4 of moral reasoning in which individuals make moral judgments in consideration of others.
Kohlberg's Postconventional Level of Morality Stages 5 & 6 of moral reasoning in which individuals make moral judgments in relation to abstract principles.
Kohlberg's Stage 1 of Moral Reasoning Punishment & Obedience: Physical consequences of action determine its goodness or badness. ie. if I get a spanking my behavior was bad.
Kohlberg's Stage 2 of Moral Reasoning Instrumental Relativist: What is right is whatever satisfies one's own needs and occasionally the needs of others. ie. children's own desires become important, yet they are aware of the interests of others.
Kohlberg's Stage 3 of Moral Reasoning Good Boy - Good Girl: Good behavior is whatever pleases or helps others and is approved of by them. ie. One earns approval by being "nice".
Kohlberg's Stage 4 of Moral Reasoning Law & Order: Right is doing one's duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order for its own sake. ie. laws are followed w/o question and breaking the law can never be justified.
Kohlberg's Stage 5 of Moral Reasoning Social Contract: What is right is defined in terms of general individual rights and in terms of standards that have been agreed on by the whole society. ie. Laws are not frozen they can be changed for the good of society.
Kohlberg's Stage 6 of Moral Reasoning Universal Ethical Principle: What is right is defined by decision of conscience according to self-chosen ethical principles. These principles are abstract and ethical such as the Golden rule not specific like the 10 commandments.
Prosocial behavior Actions that show respect and caring for others.
Solitary Play Play that occurs alone.
Parallel Play Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influence.
Associative Play Play that is much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking and general interest in what others are doing.
Cooperative Play Play in which children join together to achieve a common goal.
Self-concept A person's perception of his or her own strengths, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes and values.
Self-esteem The value each of us place on our own characteristics, abilities and behaviors.
Social Comparison The process of comparing oneself to others to gather information and to evaluate and judge one's abilities, attitudes and conduct.
Three steps to improve the social skills and levels of acceptance of unpopular and rejected children. (interventions) 1. Reinforce appropriate social behavior 2. Modeling. 3. Coaching.
Reflectivity The tendency to analyze oneself and one's own thoughts. One of the first signs of early adolescence.
Strategies to improve self-esteem Encouragement. Challenge. Promote achievement. Goal setting and achievement. Personal Improvement (not comparison to peers). Acts of kindness to others.
Motivation The influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs Identifies two types of needs: deficiency needs (physiological, safety, love, esteem) and growth needs (learning, aesthetic, self-actualization). People are motivated to satisfied needs at the bottom of the hierarchy before those at the top.
Maslow's deficiency needs Basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being such as physiological, safety, belongingness, love, esteem.
Maslow's growth needs Needs for knowing, appreciating and understanding which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met.
self-actualization A person's ability to develop his or her full potential.
attribution theory A theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures.
Locus of control A personality trait that determines whether people attribute responsibility for their own failure or success to internal or external factors.
Expectancy theory A theory of motivation based on the belief that people's efforts to achieve depend on their expectations of reward.
Expectancy-valence model A theory that relates the probability and the incentive values of success to motivation. Motivation (M) = Perceived probability of success (Ps) x Incentive value of success (Is).
Achievement Motivation The desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which sucess depends on personal effort and abilities.
Learning goals The goals of students who are motivated primarily by desire for knowledge acquisition and self-improvement. Also called mastery goals.
Performance goals The goals of students who are motivated primarily by a desire to gain recognition from others and to earn good grades.
Strategy for improving student motivation Train students to attribute their successes to controllable causes, especially effort.
Learned helplessness The expectation, based on experience, that one's actions will ultimately lead to failure.
Intrinsic incentive An aspect of an activity that people enjoy and therefore find motivating.
Extrinsic incentive A reward that is external to the activity, such as recognition or a good grade.
Is extrinsic or intrinsic more valuable to promoting life long growth and learning Intrinsic.
Contingent praise Praise that is effective because it refers directly to specific task performances.
Students at-risk Students who are subject to school failure because of their own characteristics and/or because of inadequate responses to their needs by school, family or community.
Compensatory education Programs designed to prevent or remediate learning problems among students from lower socioeconomic status communities.
6 types of involvement schools can emphasize in a comprehensive partnership w/parents Parenting skills, School-Parent communication, Parent Volunteering, Learning at home, Involvement in School decision making, Collaborating with the community.
Multicultural education Education that teaches the value of cultural diversity
Content integration Teachers' use of examples, data and other information from a variety of cultures.
Knowledge construction Helping students understand how the knowledge we take in is influenced by our origins and points of view.
Prejudice reduction A critical goal of multicultural education; involves development of pos. relationships and tolerant attitudes among students of different backgrounds
equity pedagogy Teaching techniques that facilitate the academic success of students from different ethnic and social class groups.
Multiple intelligences In Gardner's theory of intelligence, a person's eight separate abilities: logical/mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal
Classical Conditioning Conditioning a response from a neutral stimuli. Pavlov's Dog
Unconditioned Stimulus A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response. Meat makes dog salivate. The stimulus in this case would be the meat
Unconditioned Response A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus. Meat makes dog salivate. The response in the dog's salivation.
Neutral stimuli Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response. Pavlov's bell. Ring a bell with an unconditioned dog and the dog will have no reaction
Conditioned stimulus A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Dog salivates will bell is rung.
Operant Conditioning the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior. Skinner's Rat
Skinner's Box An apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments in operant conditioning.
Consequences Pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors.
Reinforcer A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior.
Primary reinforcer Food, water, or other consequences that satisfies a basic need.
Secondary reinforcer reinforcers that acquire their value by being associated with primary reinforcers or other well-established secondary reinforcers. ie. Money has no value to a young child until they learn that money can be used to buy things that are themselves primary or
Positive reinforcer Pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior.
Negative reinforcer Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior. ie. If you do well in school you won't have to do the dishes for a week.
Premack Principle AKA. Grandma's Rule. Rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities. "Eat your vegetables and then you may play."
Intrinsic Reinforcers Behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward.
Extrinsic Reinforcers Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in without them.
Punishment Unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior.
Presentation punishment An aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again. ie. spanking, verbal reprimand
Aversive stimulus An unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape. ie. spanking or reprimand
Removal punishment Withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that is reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will reoccur. ie. having to stay in during recess
Time out Procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced.
Shaping the teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal.
Extinction The weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn.
Extinction burst The increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction.
Schedule of reinforcement The frequency and predictability of reinforcement.
Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors.
Variable-ratio (VR) schedule Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors. (More effective than FR.)
Fixed-interval (FI) schedule Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time. ie. Final exams.
Variable-interval (VI) schedule Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded some times but not at others, and we have no idea when a behavior will be reinforced. ie. Random teacher spot checks.Most effective longest lasting effects.
Maintenance Continuation of behavior.
Antecedent stimuli Events that precede behavior. Holding up your hand to get students' attention is an example. The stimulus that informs students what behaviors will be reinforced.
Discrimination Perception of and response to differences in stimuli. The use of cues, signals or info to know when behavior is likely to be reinforced. ie. don't ask mom for a cookie when she is mad.
Generalization Carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another. Usually must be planned for. Classroom management program in math can be transferred to English. Students don't always learn this automatically.
Bandura's four phases of observational learning (part of the social learning theory) Attentional, Retention, Reproduction, and Motivational Phase
Social Learning Theory Learning theory that emphasizes not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action.
Behavior Learning Theory Explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
Cognitive Learning Theory Explanations of learning that focus on mental processes
Modeling Imitation of others' behavior
Observational learning Learning by observation and imitation of others. P.E. teacher demonstrates how to do jumping jacks. Children imitate the movement.
Vicarious Learning Learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behaviors. Billy was rewarded for doing his school work I will do mine too in hopes to also get a reward.
Self-regulation Rewarding or punishing one's own behavior. I will reward myself with ice cream after I have finished reading all of chapter 5.
Cognitive Behavior Modification Procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction. "What is my problem, what is my plan, am I using my plan, How did I do?"
Constructivist theories of learning Theories that state that learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules and revising rules when they no longer work.
Cognitive Apprenticeship The process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer.
Discovery Learning A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves.
Top-Down processing Teachers give the students a large task and them help them answer the question by figuring out the steps necessary to solve the problem. ie. Mary wants to buy four pencils that cost 12 cents each. How much money would she need?
Self-regulated learners Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them.
Mediated learning Assisted learning: An approach in which the teacher guides instruction by means of scaffolding to help students master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning.
Reciprocal Teaching A small group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster metacognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension.
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) A cooperative learning method for mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) A comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades; students work in four member cooperative learning teams.
Jigsaw A cooperative learning model in which students are assigned to six member teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections for each member.
Learning Together A cooperative learning model in which students in four or five member heterogeneous groups work together on assignments.
Group Investigation A cooperative learning model in which students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion, and cooperative planning and projects and then make presentations to the whole class on their findings.
Cooperative Scripting A study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.
means-ends analysis A problem-solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions.
Instrumental Enrichment A thinking skills program in which students work through a series of paper-and-pencil exercises that are designed to develop various intellectual abilities.
Critical thinking The ability to make rational decisions about what to do or what to believe. ie. weighing competing evidence, identifying assumptions or fallacies in arguments, identifying misleading advertisements.
6 methods of Teaching Creative Problem Solving Incubation-avoid rushing to a solution. Suspension of Judgment- brainstorm. Appropriate Climates- relaxed and positive environment is best. Analysis- analyze specific elements of a problem. Engaging Problems- intriguing questions. Feedback- frequently.
Strategy Building Blocks (Four Steps) State. Search. Evaluate. Elaborate.
Beyer's 10 critical thinking skills that students might use in judging the validity of claims 1. fact vs. claim 2. relevant vs. irrelevant 3. accuracy? 4. credibility of source? 5. ambiguous claims? 6. unstated assumptions? 7. bias? 8. logical fallacies? 9. logical inconsistencies? 10. strength of claim?
Strategies for teaching critical thinking Top-Down processing, Drawing pictures, acting out situations, making diagrams, capture student interest w/ demonstrations and exploration, cooperative learning groups to solve complex problems, incentive for group work
Information-processing theory Cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage and retrieval of knowledge in the mind.
Sensory register Component of the memory system in which information is received and held for very short periods of time. If you do not process the information it is rapidly lost. ie the song currently playing on the radio or the smell of dinner
Perception A person's interpretation of stimuli. The sensory images of which we are conscious are not exactly the same as what we saw, heard or felt, but what we assume they really are.
Attention Active focus on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others.
short-term or working memory The component of memory in which limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds. Remembering a phone number long enough to dial the phone.
rehearsal Mental repetition of information, which can improve its retention.
Long-term memory The components of memory in which large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time. Three types: Episodic, Semantic, and Procedural.
episodic memory A part of long-term memory that stores images of our personal experience. "stores episodes"
semantic memory A part of long-term memory that stores facts and general knowledge. Most of the things that are learned in class lessons are retained in this type of memory.
procedural memory A part of long-term memory that stores information about how to do things.
Flashbulb memory Important events that are fixed mainly in visual and auditory memory.
Schemata Mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information.
Levels of processing theory Explanation of memory that links recall of a stimulus with the amount of mental processing it receives
Dual code theory of memory Theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better that information coded in only one of those two ways.
Automaticity The effortless performance that comes with the development of expertise. As individuals learn more, their brains become more efficient.
interference Inhibition of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory. Information gets mixed up or pushed aside by by other information.
retroactive inhibition Decreased ability to recall previously learned information cause by learning of new information. Typically the new information is lost because it is somewhat similar information to what was previously learned. Example don't teach the "d" until students fu
proactive inhibition decreased ability to learn new information caused by interference from existing knowledge.
Proactive facilitation increased ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information.
retroactive facilitation increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new information.
Primary effect The tendency for items at the beginning of a lists to be recalled more easily than other items
recency effect the tendency for items at the end of a list to be recalled more easily that other items.
massed practice technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time. ie. cramming for a test might help retain the info to get through the test but probably not for long term memory.
distributed practice technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a long period of time. Better for long term memory.
enactment a learning process in which individuals physically carry out tasks. Hands on learning.
Verbal learning Learning of words or facts expressed as words. For example students are asked to learn lists of words. Three types of verbal learning are: paired associate, serial, and free recall
paired-associate learning learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented the other can be recalled. ie. state's capitals, multiplication tables.
serial learning memorization of a series of items in a particular order. ie. The sequence of presidents.
free recall learning learning a list of items in any order. ie. name all 50 states.
imagery mental visualizations of images to improve memory
mnemonics devices or strategies for aiding the memory.
keyword method a strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items.
loci method a strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations. ie. think of a familiar setting and then pair each item to be remembered with a location in the setting.
pegword method a strategy for memorization in which images are used to link lists of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers. ie. 1st 10 presidents, GW eating a bun (1), Adams tying his shoe (2) Jefferson climbing a tree (3)
initial letter strategies strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into a more easily remembered word or phrase
rote learning memorization of facts or associations that might be essentially arbitrary.
meaningful learning mental processing of new information that relates to previously learned knowledge.
inert knowledge learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited to artificial applications. usually consists of info we learned in school but failed to apply in life. ie able to pass a french test but not chat in Paris
self-questioning strategies learning strategies that call on students to ask themselves who, what, when, where, and why as they read material.
Study strategies requiring students to represent the material in skeletal form (3) Outlining, Mapping, Networking
PQ4R method a study strategy that has students preview, question, read, reflect, recite, and review material.
advance organizers activities and techniques that orient students to the material before reading or class presentation.
analogies images, concepts or narratives that compare new information to information students already understand
elaboration the process of connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learner's mind.
Created by: kylee81
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