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Biomes and Ecosystem

Ch. 19

TermDefinition
Biotic the living or once-living parts of an environment.
Abiotic the non-living parts that the living parts of an environment need to survive.
Biome is a geographic area on Earth that contains ecosystems with similar biotic and abiotic features.
Salinity is the amount of salt dissolved in water. Water in saltwater ecosystems have high salinity compared to water in freshwater ecosystems.
Ecological Succession the process of one ecological community gradually changing into another. This occurs in a series of steps.
Climax community a stable community that no longer goes through major ecological changes. This is the final stage of ecological succession.
Pioneer species e first species that colonize new or undisturbed land.
Aquatic succession when a freshwater ecosystem changes over time in a natural, predictable process.
Eutrophication the process of a body of water becoming nutrient-rich. This is a natural part of aquatic succession.
DESERT are biomes that receive very little rain. Earth's driest ecosystems. Most are hot during the day and cold at night and some remain cold all the time. Animals: lizards, snakes Plants: cactus, thorny shrubs
GRASSLAND biomes are areas where grasses are the dominant plants. Also called prairies, savanna and meadows. They have wet and dry seasons, deep fertile soil. Animals: hawks, wolves, prairie dogs Plants: grasses
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST: forests that grow near the equator. They receive large amounts of rain, weather is warm and wet year round. *Half of Earth's species live in the tropical rain forest especially in the canopy of trees. Animals: insects, parrots, snakes, frogs Pla
TEMPERATE RAIN FOREST region of Earth between the tropics and the polar circles. They have mild climates with distinct seasons. Soil is rich and moist. Animals: mosquitoes, wookpeckers, owls, deer, elk Plants: spruces, cedar, firs, redwood
TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST grow in temperate regions where winter and summer climates have more variation. Have deciduous trees that lose their leaves in the fall. Soil is rich with nutrients. Animals: foxes, raccoons, ants Plants: maples, birches, oaks
TAIGA is a forest biome consisting mostly of cone-bearing evergreen trees. It occupies more space on Earth's continents than any other biome. Winter are long, summers are short, and the soil is thin and acidic. Animals: owls, mice, moose, bears Pla
TUNDRA is cold, dry and treeless. Winters are long and freezing and soil remains permanently frozen (permafrost) which prevents deep root growth. Animals: polar bears Plants: mosses,lichens
FRESHWATER: STREAMS AND RIVERS treams, rivers, ponds and lakes. Streams form from underground sources of water. Rivers form when streams flow together. Ponds and lakes contain freshwater that is not flowing. Ponds are shallow and warm, and high in nutrients. Lakes are deeper
WETLANDS are aquatic ecosystems that have a thin layer of water covering soil that is wet most of the time. Wetlands contain freshwater, salt water, or both. They are among Earth's most fertile ecosystems. Found on the edge of lakes and ponds and along th
ESTUARIES are regions along coastlines where streams or rivers flow into a body of salt water. Have varying degrees of salinity. Estuaries help protect coastal land from flooding and erosion. Nutrient levels and biodiversity are high.
OCEANS Most of Earth's surface is covered by ocean water with high salinity.
Intertidal Zone is the ocean shore between the lowest low tide and the highest high tide.
Coral Reef is an underwater structure made from outside skeletons of tiny, soft bodied animals called coral. They protect coastlines from storm damage and erosion.
Created by: darnett