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Upper Extremities

X-ray Upper Extremities

How many bones are in the hand and wrist? 27
What bones form the palm of the hand? metacarples
what are the bones of the wrist? carpals - Hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, pisiform, triquetrum, lunate, scaphoid
What are the 6 bone classifications? Long bones, short bones, carpal bones, flat bones, Irregular bones, seasmoid bones
What is the first bone located on the proximal row and lateral side of the wrist? scaphoid
In an AP projection of the thumb what is the angle of the CR to view the first metacarpal free of the seasmoid bone? 10-15 degrees
What is the term for making a fist and what does it do when shooting a wrist x-ray? Flexion and it decreased the OID
Where is your central ray during a PA projection of the wrist? midcarpal area
What is the Stecher method aka PA Axial projection? When either the wrist is angled or CR is angled 20 degrees to get the scaphoid by it's self
What projections clearly demonstrate the scaphoid? PA ulnar Flexion and PA axial
What projection will correct foreshortening of the scaphoid? PA ulnar deviation
How many bones are in the hand? 19
How many degrees rotation is needed for an oblique projection? 45
For a PA oblique projection of the first digit the hand is placed in the ... position. Prone
where is the CR for a PA hand projection? Third MCP joint
A Fx of the ulna with dislocation of the radial head is called a ... Fx. Monteggia Fx
Where is the olecranon process located? the proximal end of the ulna
The ... is located at the distal end of the radius, styloid process
The ... is located at the head of the ulna styloid process
what is the C shaped notch of the ulna called? Trochlear Notch
What process is distal the trochlear notch? coronoid process
what depression is located pm the lateral aspect of the coronoid process? radial notch
What is located inferiorly to the neck of the radius on the medial side? Radial tuberosity
the olecranon process makes up what? the elbow
for a lateral wrist and or forearm the elbow must be flexed how many degrees? 90
Where is the Greater tubercle? Lateral surface of the humerus just below the anatomic neck
What separates the Greater and Lesser Tubercle? a depression called the intertubercular groove
what is on the anterior surface of the humerus where the tendon of the subscapularis muscle inserts it's self? lesser tubercle
what is a periosteum? dense fibrous membrane of a bone
what is a diaphysis? shaft of long bone
where is yellow marrow found? long bones
what is a foramen? hole or opening in a bone
calcium salts do what? infiltrate bone tissue
what is a fossa? a pit or open cavity
What is a fissure? narrow slit between bones
What is callus? new formation of bone
What is included in the Appendicular skeleton? limbs shoulders and pelvic gridle
what is included int the Axial Skeleton? skull, vertebral column, ribs, stermum
In adults where is yellow bone marrow made? and where is red bone marrow made? Yellow- long bones, red- flat bones
What is a bone composed of? (4 parts) Compact bone- external portion, Peroseteum - outer covering, Cancellous bone - spongy bone, Medullary cavity - contains bone marrow
What is the epiphysis? end of bone, secondary growth center
what is an epiphyseal plate? cartalige between Epiphysis and the metaphysic until growth is complete
What type of joint is diarthrodial? wrist
What type of joint is synoarthrodial? sutures of the skull
what type of joint is amphiarthrodial? distal tib fib joint
What is the largest joint in the body? your knee
what are the 6 joint types? ball and socket- hip, condyloid- radiocarpals of the wrist, saddle - thumb, hinge- toes , ankle, pivot - radioulnar joint, gliding - intercarpals of the wrist
what is a potts Fx? a Fx of the distal end of the fibula
what is the most important thing when positioning a patient? comfort
What is another name for scaphoid? Navicular
what is another name for phalange? Phalanx
Where are the sesamoid bones in the hand? head of the first metacarpal
What are commonly known as knuckles? metacarpal heads
What carpal articulates with the radius proximally? lunate
the carpal sulcus protects what? tendons of finger and median nerve
What is the largest carpal? capitate
what is the largest proximal carpal? scaphoid
what is an anatomic snuffbox? the depression overlying the scaphoid when the thumb is abducted
what flow through the carpal canal? medial nerve and flexor tendons
the radius is located on what side of the body? lateral side
the ulna is located on what side of the body? medial side
What is the entire distal end of the humerus called? humeral condyle
the trochlea is on what side of the humerus? the medial side
the capitulum is on which side of the humerus? the lateral side
which is bigger the medial or lateral epicondyle? medial
what is the depression superior to the trochlea? the coronoid fossa
what is lateral to the coronoid process and proximal to the capitulum? the radial fossa
what is the posterior fossa of the distal humerus? olecranon fossa
Which neck is the proximal neck of the humerus? anatomical neck
what kind of joint does the first digit have? Interphalangeal joint (IP)/ synovia hinge
what kind of joints do the metacarpals have? Metacarpalpophalangeal (MCP) / synovial ellipsoidal (condyloid) joint
The trochlea articulates with what? the ulna at the trochlear notch
the capitulum of the humerus articulates with what? the radial head
the humeroulnar and humeroradial articulations are what kind of joints? synovial hinge joints.
what projection can you visualize three areas of fat associated with the elbow?? Lateral projection
when are the supinator and anterior fat pads visible? when elbow is flexed at 90 degrees in lateral position
what is a reliable way to determine elbow pathology? posterior far pad
What breaks in a Bennett Fx? the base of the first metacarpal
what breaks in a Boxer's Fx? the neck of the metacarpal (4th or 5th)
Fx of the distal radius with posterior displacement? Colles
Fx of the distal radius with anterior displacement? Smiths
How big should cassette be for digit xrays? 8x10
In an x-ray of the thumb, Lewis suggests doing what to get rid of soft tissue in joint space? angle the tube 10-15 degrees towards the wrist
Robert method says your CR should be angles how many degrees while shooting the first CMC joint? 0 degrees
Burman method says you should do what to achieve what? AP projection of the carpals with a tube angulation of 45 degrees towards the wrist.
What is used to diagnose skiers thumb? and what done? The folio method, rubber band their thumbs around a roll of tape so you can see the angles of the MCP joints.
The Norgaard method is also known as what and where is the CR for this position? AP projection of both hands CR is in the middle of both hands aka Ball catchers, shows AP oblique of both hands
Which projection of the wrist gives better visualization of the carpal interspace? AP projection of the wrist
Where is a carpal boss located and how do you visualize it? third CMC joint and with a lateral wrist with palmer flexion
What carpal is shown separate in a oblique wrist x-ray? Pisiform
a tangential projection of the hand looks like what? the posterior hand and wrist are flat on the IR with the CR angled 45 degrees towards the wrist so you can see the carpal bones
What is the Gaynor-Hart method and what does it do/look like? Tangential projection that allows visualization of the carpal canal , anterior hand/ fingers against IR with wrist hyper extended outwards with CR angled 20-35 degrees along the axis of the forearm
what does the oblique elbow position show? the coronoid process free of superimposition
What two projections are required when a lateral elbow x-ray cannot be obtained? Distal Humerus and Proximal Forearm - partial flexion
Where do you collimate for an AP humerus projection? 2 inches distal elbow joint, 2 inches superior shoulder joint and one inch on all sides
For a true lateral projection of the humerus what need to be superimposed? the epicondyles
A medial rotation does what to the greater and lesser tubercles? you aren't able to see it as well because it is superimposed
What is the shoulder girdle formed by? clavicle and scapula
The shoulder girdle is completed in the front by what? the sternum
the acromion process is part of what bone? scapula
The curvature of what is more acute in males than in females? Clavicle
what part of the scapula runs parallel with the vertebral column? Medial border of the scapula
Created by: christina325