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Adv. Mod. Unit 4

Ultrasound, Rad. Therapy, NM, MRI, DXA,

If there is an ultrasound of an abdomen, what would be its frequency? 5-7 MHz
For intraluminal studies, is the frequency increased or decreased? What about its resolution? the frequency is higher (17MHz); since the frequency is increased the resolution is increased as well
What is a pulsed system in ultrasound? When the transducer sends out a short burst of ultrasound energy and is followed by a silent period as it listens for the returning echo.
What is the term for structures that don't produce an echo? anechoic
What is the term for structures that overproduce echoes? hyperechoic
How are cystic masses differentiated from solid masses? cystic masses are anechoic, they don't produce echoes
What is the gold standard for ultrasound? pancreas, liver, gallbladder, uterus and blood vessels
To reduce the amount of bowel gas present, what must the patient do? fast before the exam at least 6-8 hrs. NPO
What are the 3 types of ultrasound? 1) medical (general) 2) vascular 3) cardiac
When ultrasounding an eyelid, what kind of transducer is used? (high or low frequency) high frequency- because it uses the least penetration
What exam measures bone mineral content (BMC) & bone mineral density (BMD) of specific skeletal sites of the whole body? bone densitometry
What is the goal in radiation therapy? to deliver radiation as precisely as possible to the tumor while limiting the dose to normal tissue
T/F: Radiation Oncology is the same thing as radiation therapy? true
T/F: the length of time and total dose of radiation depends on the type of cancer & the purpose of the treatment in radiation therapy. true
What is the difference between brachytherapy & external beam therapy? *brachytherapy is short distance; insertion of low-intensity radioactive nuclides inside the body in close proximity to tumor; superficial cancers *external beam therapy is long distance; when the patient lies underneath a machine that emits radiation
Most radiation therapy dept. use what as their main treatment unit? linear accelerators (linacs)
Linear accelerators are examples of what kind of radiation treatment? external beam therapy
What kind of energy beam (low or high) are used for superficial treatments? low energy beams
What person of the radiation team administers treatments and maintains records? radiation therapist
Is there good or poor transmission of sound waves in ultrasound in solids/liquids? good
When ultrasounding through gas, is there good or poor transmission of sound waves? poor
What modality uses high frequency sound waves to produce images of organs and structures in the body? ultrasound
When using external beam therapy, which unit contains collimators? cyberknife
Which unit in external beam therapy is used to treat deep tumors within the brain? gamma knife
T/F: What a pt. goes through radiation therapy treatment, the pt. must be in the same position for each treatment. true
What device in ultrasound converts electrical energy into ultrasound energy? transducer
T/F: the transducer only acts as a transmitter. false; it act as a transmitter and a receiver
Why are gels applied to the skin or face of the transducer during an ultrasound? they prevent signal loss
If a transducer has a frequency of 3.5MHz, would the resolution be high or low? low
If a transducer has a frequency of 3.5MHz, would the penetration be higher or lower? higher
If a transducer has a high resolution what is the relationship for its penetration? higher resolution, lower penetration
Clinical indications for bone densitometry include all of the following except: A. estrogen deficiency in women B. hyperparathyroidism C. vertebral abnormalities D. Polycystic kidney disease D
T/F: the loss of magnesium & phosphorus from the bony cortex is the primary cause of osteoporosis. false; loss of calcium and collagen
T-score is defined as what? compares the patient with an average young, healthy person of the same sex with peak bone mass
T/F: obesity so a contraindication for osteoporosis. False
What cells remove bone and cause bone absorption? Osteoclasts
What cells are responsible for building or replacing bone? Osteoblasts
What pathology is known to be a systemic skeletal disease? Osteoporosis
What does DXA stand for? Dual-energy xray absorptiometry
What does QCT stand for? Quantitative computed tomography
What's the difference between DXA and QCT? QCT evaluates both cortical and trabecular bone; DXA does not evaluate trabecular bone
What's the difference between BMC and BMD? BMC (bone mineral count) measures the quantity or mass of bone in grams; BMD (bone mineral density) is the ratio of BMC to a projected area.
What are the two standards used to compare the patients bone density measurements with the average person of two different groups? *T score *Z score
Created by: mokapis