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Rad Bio Test 4

Radiation Protection

Name some US regulatory agencies. *NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) *EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) *FDA (Food & Drug Administration) *OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration)
What organization group makes recommendations on occupational & public dose limits based on info from UNSCEAR & NAS/NRC-BEIR? ICRP- international commission of radiation protection
What group reviews ICRP, recommends & implements them into a US radiation protection policy? NCRP- national council on radiation protection
Which group's main function is to oversee nuclear energy industry, controls manufacture, use & dispose radioactive substances? NRC- nuclear regulatory commission
Which group monitors places of employment? OSHA
Which group regulates design & manufactures electronic products including xray equipment? FDA
Which individual is responsible for maintaining individual radiation records? RSO- radiation safety officer
How many mSv is the EfD to the lens of the eye? 150mSv
What is the EfD to the skin, hands and skin in mRem? 50mRem
What is the traditional unit for EfD to the lens of the eye? 15 Rem or 15,000 mRem
What is the EfD in SI units for skin, hands and feet? 500 mSv
What is the EfD for annual whole body exposure in traditional units? 5 Rem or 5,000 mRem
What is the EfD for cummulative whole body exposure in SI units? 10 mSv X age
Where should the second monitor be worn for a pregnant tech? placed under the lead apron at waist level
What is the formula when calculating cumulative whole body dose in traditional units? 1 Rem X age
What is the EfD limit for embryo/fetus of declared pregnant women for the entire pregnancy? 0.5 Rem (500 mRem)/ 5mSv
What is the NCRP recommended dose limit per month for a pregnant tech? .05 Rem
What is the notification level for deep tissue exposure for SLCC? 400 mR
What is the notification level for shallow exposure for SLCC? 1000mR
What are the different types of dosimeters? *film badge *OSL *TLD *pocket dosimeter
What measures background exposure that is subtracted from personnel monitors? Control monitors
What are the three types of field survey instruments? *cutie pie *geiger-mueller counter *calibration instruments
Which field survey instrument is used in xray, gamma, and beta radiation? Geiger counter
Which survey instrument is used in nuclear medicine? Geiger-counter
Which survey instrument is used to detect leakage radiation? Cutie pie
Which survey instrument measures exposure rate and cumulative exposure? Cutie pie
Which survey instruments have a ionization chamber? All of them
What does DAP stand for? Dose area product
What is the term to describe a collection of de-identified patient radiation dose data from individual medical imaging exams? Radiation dose registry
What are the three cardinal principles of radiation protection? Shielding, time, distance
What does ESE stand for? entrance skin exposure
What's the average ESE for an exam? 3R/min
A fluoro emits 5R/min. What the pt's exposure for a BAE that is conducted that requires 3.5 min of fluoro time? 17.5R (5R/min x 3.5 min)
High dose exposure using high dose mode should not exceed what? 20R/min
High dose control exposure using AEC should not exceed what? 10R/min
High dose control exposure using manual mode should not exceed what? 5R/min
What are some ways to reduce beam intensity for fluoro? *high kV to minimize mA *when not needed, remove grid *avoid magnification & high dose modes
Total tube filtration for equipment that uses above 70 kVp should be a minimum of ______mm Al eq. 2.5
Fluoro beam at the IR should not exceed visible image area by more than _____% of SID. 3%
"Hardening the beam" is known as _____________. tube filtration
Accuracy of PBL should not exceed ____% of SID. 2%
What does PBL stand for? positive beam limitation
Beam limitation (collimation) reduces what 2 things? patient exposure & scatter
If you increase your kVp what happens to mAs & pt. dose? decrease
To reduce ESE the minimum SSD should be what for mobile units (answer in cm)? 30cm (12")
How long by law should the fluoro timer be set at? 5 min
What is the switch called when exposure is only on when pressure is applied to activate; normally operated by the radiologist? dead man's switch
Gonad shielding should always be used when the gonads are in or within approx. how many cm of a properly collimated field? 5cm
As mm of Pb increases, weight of the lead apron increases what happens to the % of attenuation? increases
The II on the fluoro must have a minimum of ____mm of lead. 2
How thick must personal shielding be? .25mm
How thick are thyroid shields? .5mm
In fluoro, what two things reduce occupational exposure from scatter? protective drapes and bucky slot cover
When using the c-arm what can be done to reduce scatter? position the c-arm so that the xray tube is under the patient whenever possible
Tube leakage must not exceed ____ mR/hr. 100
In fluoro, what is the primary barrier? II
Tube housing provides protection from what kind of radiation? leakage radiation
What is the exposure limit for an uncontrolled area? 2mrem/wk
What does it mean by occupancy factor? time that the area adjacent to xray room is occupied
What are some factors that affect barrier thickness? *Inverse Square Law *Use Factor *Workload
What two materials commonly make up the primary protective barrier? lead & concrete
What kinds of radiation does the secondary barrier protect individuals from? scatter and leakage radiation
How thick must the secondary protective barrier be? 1/32"
How thick must the primary protective barrier be? 1/16"
Where is the primary protective barrier located in relationship to the xray beam? perpendicular to the undeflected line of travel of xray beam.
What are 3 categories of radiation that an individual needs to be shielded from? *primary radiation *leakage radiation *scatter radiation
Created by: mokapis