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Chapter 3 Biological Basis of Behavior

Action Potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys
Adrenal glands secrete norepinephrine & epinephrine hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
Amygdala two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
Aphasisa impairment of language
Aphaisa is commonly caused by damage to the left hemisphere either to the Broca or Wernicke's area
Association Areas areas of cerebral cortec that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions
association areas are involved in higher mental functions- learning, remembering, thinking & speaking
Autonomic Nervous System is a part of the Peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of internal organs. Sympathetic division arouses; parasympathetic division calms
Axon extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers. Messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
Behavioral Genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology & behavior
Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologist or biopyschologists
Brainstem oldest part & central core of the brain; begins where the spinal cord swells as it enter the scull
Brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
Broca's Area controls language expression & directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Broca's area is located in the left frontal lobe
Central Nervous System includes the brain & spinal chord
Cerebellum or "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem.
Cerebellum functions include processing sensory input & coordinating movement output & balance
Cerebral Cortex intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemisphere
Cerebral Cortex is the body's ultimate control & information-processing center
Chromosomes threadlike structures of DNA molecules that contain genes
Cognitive neuroscience interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
Cognitive neuroscience invludes perception, thinking, memory & language
Computed tomography
Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Coropus Callosum is responsible for carrying messages between the two brain hemispheres
Corpus Callosum large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres
dendrites are bushy, branchy extensions of a neuron
dendrites receive messages & conduct impulses toward the cell body
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes
Dual processing principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious & unconscious tracks
Electroencephalogram (EEG) amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
EEG Waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
Endocrine System also known as the body's slow chemical communication system
Endocrine System a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Endorphins also noted as morphine within
Endorphins are natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Environment every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people & things around us
Evolutionary Psychology study of the roots of behavior & mental processes using the principles of natural selection
Fraternal Twins twins whom develop in separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers & sister, but they share a fetal environment
Frontal Lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead
Frontal lobes involve speaking & muscle movements & in making plans/judgements
Functional MRI or FMRI
Functional MRI technique for revealing bloodflow and brain activity by comparing successive MR scans.- show brain function
Genes biochemical units of heredity that make up chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
Genome complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
Glial cell are found in the nervous system
glial cells support, nourish and protect neurons
Heritability proportion of variation among individuals that we may attribute to genes
heritability of a trait may be dependent on range of populations & environments studied
Hormones chemical messengers which travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues
Hormones are manufactured by the endocrine glands
Hypothalamus is a neural structure lying below the thalamus
hypo below
hypothalamus directs eating, drinking, body temperature, governs the endocrine system through the pituary gland & is linked to emotion/reward
Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg which splits in two
identical twins are genetically identical
Interaction interplay that occurs between one factor and another. - Environment on Heredity
Interneurons neurons within the brain & spinal chord that communicate internally & intervene between the sensory inputs & motor outputs.
Lesion tissue destruction- brain lesions are naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped neural system including: the hippocampus, amygdala & hypothalamus located bewlow the cerebral hemispheres
Limbis system is associated with emotions & drives
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique using magnetic fields & radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue.
MRI'S Show brain anatomy
Medulla controls heartrate & breathing
Medulla is at the base of the brainstem
Molecular Genetics sub-field of biology which studies the molecular structure & function of genes
Motor Cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes
Motor cortex controls voluntary movements
Mutation random error in gene replication taht leads to a change
Myelin sheath Layer of fatty tissue encasing fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impules as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Natural selection principle that among the range of inherited trait variations; those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Nerves bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands & sense organs
Nervous system body's speed electrochemical communication netwrok, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral & central nervous systems
Neurogenesis formation of new neurons
Neuron a nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by sending neurons, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse & bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron
neurotransmitters influence whether neurons will generate a neural impusle
occipital lobes portion of cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head
Occipital lobes include areas which receive information from visual fields
Parasympathetic nervous system division out autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserves energy
Parietal Lobes portion of cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head & toward the rear
Parietal lobes receive sensory input for touch & body position
Peripheral Nervous System sensory & motor neurons which connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Pituitary gland under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth & controls other endocrine glands
Pituitary gland is most influential on the endocrine system
Plasticity brain's ability to change, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
Plasticity is most prominent during childhood
Positron Emission Tomography also referred to as PET
PET visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain is performing a given task
Reflex a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
Reticular Formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Reuptake a nerotransmitter;s reabsorption by sending the neuron
Sensory Cortex is an area at the front of the parietal lobes
Sensory Cortex registers & processes body touch & movement sensations
Sensory Neurons neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain & spinal chord
Somatic Nervous System division of peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system also called skeletal nervous system
Split brain condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them
Split Brain surgery typically cuts fibers of corpus callosum
Sympathetic Nervous System division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Synapse junction between the azon tip of the sending neuron & the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.- tiny gap is called synaptic gap or cleft
temporal lobes portion of cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears
temporal lobes include auditory areas; each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
Thalamus brain's sensory switchboard- it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex & transmits replies to the cerebellum & medulla
Thalamus is located on top of the brainstem
Threshold level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Wernicke's Area located in left temporal lobe
Wernicke's Area controls language reception- involved in language comphrension & expression
Created by: mp129152