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Chapter 2 Research Methods

Case study observation technique in which one person is studied in depth
Case studies strive to reveal universal principles
Confounding variable a factor other than the independent variable which may produce an effect on the experiment
Control Group the group that is not exposed to the treatment
Control groups serve as a comparison for evaluating the treatments effect
Correlation a measure of the extent to which twp factors vary together and how two factors predict one anothe
Correlational Coefficent a statistical index of the relationbetween two things
Correlational coefficent is between -1 and +1
Critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept aruments & conclusions
Critical thinking examines Assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence & assesses conclusions
Culture enduring behaviors, ideas,, attitudes & values and traditions shared by a group of people and are transmitted from one generation to the next
Debriefing the post experimentation explanation of a study, including its purpose & any deceptions to it's participants
Dependent variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Double- blind procedure is commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
Double-blind procedure experimental procedure in which both the participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placeboo
experiment research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect some behavior or mental process
Random assignment allows experimenter to control other relevant factors
experimental group group that is exposed to treatment- one version of independent variable
hindsight bias the tendency to believe after learning the result that one would have foreseen it
hindsight bias is also called the i-knew-it-all-along phenomenon
hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
illusory correlation the perception of a relationship, where none exists
informed consent an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to whether they wish to participate in the experiment
mean obtained by adding scores & then dividing by the number of scores
median the middle score of a distribution; half the scores are above & half are below
mode most frequently occurring score
Naturalistic observation observing & recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
normal curve also known as normal distribution
normal curve bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of date; most scores fall near the mean & fewer & fewer near the extremes
operational definition a statement of the procedures used to define the research variables
placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which the patient assumes is an active agent
population all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
population does not refer to country's whole population besides in national studies
random assignment assigning participants to experimental & control groups by chance
random assignment minimizes preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups
random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of incluion
range a difference between highest & lowest scores in a distribution
replication repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants/circumstances
replication typically involves different participants in different situations
scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the value of two variables, slope suggests the direction of the relationship between two variables
little scatter indicates high correlation
standard deviation a computed measure of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
survey a technique for finding the self-reported attitudes of or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Created by: mp129152