Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Empiricism the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
Structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function -- how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
Level of Analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
Confounding Variable a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
Illusory Correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists
Action Potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Amygdala two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Association Areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Behavioral Genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
Broca's Area controls language expression -- an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Cerebral Cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Dual Processing the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Endocrine System the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Endorphins "morphine witihin" -- natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
Functional MRI (fMRI) a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function
Genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing protein
Genome the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
Glial Cells cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
Limbic System doughnut-shaped neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheresl associated with emotions and drives
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy
Medulla the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Molecular Genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
Motor Cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Motor Neurons neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Mutation a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons
Parasympathetic Nervous System the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
Pituitary Gland the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
Reticular Formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Sensory Cortex area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Sensory Neurons neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and the spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
Split Brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
Sympathetic Nervous System the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Wernicke's Area controls language reception -- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
Absolute Threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
Accommodation the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near of far objects on the retina
Audition the sense or act of hearing
Cochlear Implant a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
Conduction Hearing Loss hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Cones retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. These cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
Difference Threshold the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time
Feature Detectors nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
Fovea the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
Frequency the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
Frequency Theory the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
Gate-Control Theory the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain
Gestalt an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
Hue the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, etc
Inattentional Blindless failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Inner Ear the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
Intensity the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
Kinesthesis the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
Lens the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
Middle Ear the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
Monocular Cues depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
Opponent-Processing Theory the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. Some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red
Optic Nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Parallel Processing the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision
Perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Perceptual Set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
Phi Phenomenon an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent light blink on and off in a quick succession
Pitch a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency
Place Theory the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Priming the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
Psychophysics the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
Pupil the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Retina the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
Retinal Disparity a binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance -- the greater disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object
Rods retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
Sensation the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
Sensorineural Hearing Loss hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
Subliminal below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Vestibular Sense the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
Wavelength the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next
Weber's Law the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must duffer by a constant percentage
Young-Hemholtz Trichromatic Processing Theory the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors -- one sensitive to red, green, and blue -- which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color
Amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
Delta Waves the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Ecstasy (MDMA) a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risk and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
Hallucinations false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
LSD a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
Methamphetamines a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
NREM Sleep non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
Opiates opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
Posthypnotic Suggestion a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Psychoactive Drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
REM Rebound the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
Sleep Apnea a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Stimulants drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
THC the major addictive ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
Acquisition in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
Associative Learning learning that certain events occur together
Biofeedback a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
Discriminative Stimulus in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement
Fixed-Interval Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Fixed-Ratio Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Higher-Order Conditioning a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
Law of Effect Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Mirror Neurons front lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Variable-Interval Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Variable-Ratio Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable number of responses
Acoustic Encoding the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Effortful Processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Explicit Memory memory of facts and experiences that one and consciously know and "declare"
Hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
Implicit Memory retention independent of conscious recollection
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Priming the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, lights, incomes) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Anorexia Nervosa an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
Basal Metabolic Rate the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
Behavioral Medicine an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
Binge-Eating Disorder significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Cannon-Bard Theory the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological and the subjective experience of emotion
Catharsis emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
Drive-Reduction Theory the idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
General Adaptation Syndrome Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases -- alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and performs the major source of energy for body tissues. When the level is low, we feel hunger
Homeostasis a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
James-Lange Theory the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Lymphocytes the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system. B form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections. T form in the thymus and lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, and viruses
Psychoneuroimmunology the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health
Relative Deprivation the perception that we are worse off relative to those whom we compare ourselves
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
Type A Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B Friendman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
Accommodation adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
Assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
Concrete Operational Stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (6-11 years) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain despite changes in the forms of objects
Cross-Sectional Stud a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
Fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Formal Operational Stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (12 years) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
Longitudinal Study research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
Preoperational Stage in Piaget's theory, the stage (2-7 years) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Social Learning Theory the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Theory of Mind people's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
Zygote the fertilized egg
Collective Unconscious Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
Collectivism giving priority to goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly
Empirically Derived Test a test (such as MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
External Locus of Control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
Internal Locus of Control the perception that you control your own fate
MMPI the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests
Oedipus Complex according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Personal Control the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless
Personality Inventory a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of findings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Rationalization psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanation in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Reaction Formation psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
Reciprocal Determinism the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
Rorschach Inkblot Test the most widely used projective test, seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Sublimation psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities
Terror-Management Theory a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death
Thematic Apperception Test a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Achievement Tests tests designed to assess what a person has learned
Aptitude Tests tests designed to predict a person's future performance
Content Validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
WAIS the most widely used intelligence tests; consists of verbal and performance subtests
Conversion Disorder a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
Evidence-Base Practice clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
Psychopharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Psychotherapy treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interacting between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Regression Toward The Mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
Resilience the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma
Resistance in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
rTMS the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
Tardive Dyskinesia involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
GRIT a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
Informational Social Influence influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Created by: cgrigorieff
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards