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autonomy independence
genocide the systematic killing of intentional destruction of a people.
nationalism pride in one's nation;the desire of a cultural group to rule themselves as a separate nation.
chernozen a rich topsoil found in the Russian steppes and other mid-latitude grasslands.
yurt a round tent made of a wooden framework and covered with felt or skins.
fundamentalism a set of religious beliefs based on a strict interpretation of a sacred text.
desertification the transformation of arable land into desert either naturally or through human intervention
mandate a commission from the League of Nations authorizing a nation to govern a territory.
zonist a member of a movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state.
self-determination the right of a people to decide their own political future.
drip irrigation a process by which precisely controlled amounts of water drip directly onto plants from pipes,thus preserving precious water resources in moisture.
potash a mineral used in explosives and fertilizer.
infrastructure the basic support permanent residents, community or country,such as roads and bridges, power plants, and schools.
falaj system in the Arabian Peninsula, an ancient system of underground and surface canals.
agircultural revolution the change from nomadic hunting and gathering to farming that took place about 8000 b.c.
civilzation an advanced culture
monotheism the belief in one god
protectorates an area that has its own government but in controlled by an outside power.
chaparral a type of natural vegetation that is adapted to Mediterranean climates; small evergreen trees and low bushes, or scrub.
poaching illegal hunting.
desalination plants the process of removing salt from seawater so that it can be used for drinking and irrigation.
nomads a person who travels from place to place.
mosques an Islamic place of religious worship.
muezzin in Islam, a crier who calls the faithful to prayer five times each day from a minaret.
minaret a tall, slender tower attached to a mosques.
trade deficit the situation in which a country imports more that it exports.
trade surplus the situation in which a country exports more than its imports.
fertile crescent
Created by: ambermonfort