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ch.21 22 23


agricultural revolution the change from nomadic hunting and gathering to farming that took place about 8000 b.c.
civilization an advanced culture
monotheism the belief in one god
protectorates an area that has its own government but is controlled by an outside power
chaparral a type of natural vegetation that is adapted to Mediterranean climates; small evergreen trees and low bushes, or scrub
poaching Illegal hunting
mosques an Islamic place of religious worship
muezzin in Islam, a crier who calls the faithful to prayer five time each day from a minaret
minaret a tall, slender tower attached to a mosque
desalination the process of removing salt from seawater so that it can be used for drinking and irrigation
nomads a person who travels from place to place
trade deficit the situation in which a country imports more than it exports
trade surplus the situation in which a country imports more than it imports
autonomy independence,in northern Georgia
genocide the systematic killing or intentional destruction of a people
nationalism the desire of cultural group to rule themselves as a separate nation, are strong in both groups
chernozem there are steppes where grasslands create a rich topsoil
fundamentalism a set of religious beliefs based on a strict interpretation of a sacred text, such as the Koran
yurt which are large, portable, round tents made of wooden frames covered with felt or skins
desertification the extension of the desert landscape through the activites of people and livestock as well as climatic changes
mandate referred to land to be governed by an outside power on behalf of the League of Nations until it was ready for independence
zionist after the hill in Jerusalem to which Jews has always prayed to return
self-determination or the right to decide their own political future
drip irrigation preserves precious water resources by letting precise amounts of water drip onto plants from pipes
potash which is used in explosives and fertilizer table salt, bromine, and other minerals from the dead sea
Fertile Crescent ran through this area, where farming and the first civilizations developed
militia or citizen army
anarchy or lawlessness
embargo or a severe restriction on trade with other countries, was imposed on Iraq by the UN
infrastructure comprises a country's basic support facilities, including its roads, schools, airports, seaports, and communication systems
falaj system Many farmers depend on an ancient system of underground and surface canals
secular or that it should be run without religious influence, and Islamic parties fought one another for power
shah or ruler
ayatollah Others, especially conservative religious leaders
Created by: michaelburgess



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