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SPC Cardio Pulm

SPC Cardiopulmonary Physiology Units 7 & 8

Kidney location: Cephaled pole: T-12; Caudal pole: L-3; Behind peritoneal cavity, below diaphragm.
Adrenal Glands: Sit on top of each kidney; secrete hormones
Kidney components: Cortex, Medulla, Renal Pyramids, Papillary Ducts, Major & Minor Calyces, Renal Pelvis
Cortex: Dark outer layer of the kidney
Medulla: Pale inner layer which contains the renal pyramids
Renal Pyramids: 8-12 in each kidney; consist of papillary ducts that extend from the cortex to the calyces.
Major & Minor Calyces: Converge into the renal pelvis
Renal Pelvis: Expanded upper end of each ureter
Nephron components: Glomerulus, Bowman's Capsule, Proximan Convuluted Tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule, Collecting Duct
Renal Corpuscle consists of: Glomerulus & Bowman's Capsule
Types of capillary beds: Glomerular & Peritubular
Glomerulus function: Filtration of blood to form urine
Peritubular function: Tubular reabsorption
The formation of urine involves: Glomerular filtration, peritubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion (nephron processes)
Glomerular filtration BV's: Afferent Arteriole: constrict = decreased GFR, dilate = increased GFR; Efferent Arteriole: constrict = increased GFR, dilate = decreased GFR
What is Active Transport & what is included? Reabsorption from tubules into peritubular capillaries; sodium, calcium, amino acids, glucose.
What is secretion & what is secreted? From peritubular capillaries into the tubules; creatinin, b.u.n.
Osmosis: 80% of water reabsorption occurs in the PCT via osmosis
Transport Maximum: The maximum rate of transport for a substance that is secreted or reabsorbed via active transport (Tm)
B.U.N. & Creatinine: Waste products in the body & are efficiently secreted by the kidneys; elevation of either = impaired renal function.
A.D.H. (Anti-diuretic Hormone) Secreted from the posterior pituitary gland; influenced by serum osmolarity; increased osmolarity triggers release which decreases urine output which results in water retention.
GFR normal: 125 ml/min
Urine output normal: 60 ml/hr or 1 ml/min
Glomerular BP normal: 55mmHg
Bowman's Capsule fluid pressure normal: -15mmHg
Osmotic Pressure normal: -30mmHg
Net Filtration Pressure normal: +10mmHg
Tm Glucose normal: 320 mg/min
Tm Creatinine normal: 16 mg/min
Plasma B.U.N. normal: 8-18 mg/dl
Plasma Creatinine normal: 0.6 - 1.2 mg/dl
Total Body Water: Males: 60%, Females: 55%, Newborns: 75%
Millimole (mmol) 1/1000 of a mole; glucose is sometimes measured in mmol/L
Milliequivalent (mEq) 1/1000 of an equivalent; The amount of an ionized substance that has eletrochemical binding power equal to one mole of hydrogen ions; Electrolytes, Cations, Anions are expressed in mEq.
Milliosmole (mOsm) 1/1000 of an osmole; One mole of osmotically active particles; Osmotic activity of blood & urine are expressed in mOsm; Glucose & proteins exert great osmotic influence.
Intracellular Cations & their normals: K+: 150 mEq/L; Mg+: 25 mEq/L; Na+: 15 mEq/L
Intracellular Anions & their normals: HPO4: 100 mEq/L; Pr: 60 mEq/L; SO4: 20 mEq/L
Plasma Cations & their normals: K+: 5 mEq/L; Ca++: 5 mEq/L; Na+: 140 mEq/L
Plasma Anions & their normals: CL-: 105 mEq/L; HCO3: 24 mEq/L
What is osmolarity: The physiochemical property of substances in a solution which determines osmosis.
Serum Osmolarity normal: 275 - 300 mOsm/L
Serum Osmolarity includes: Sodium, Glucose, B.U.N., certain proteins
Loop Diuretics (Lasix); Act by inhibiting tubular reabsorption of sodium, potassium, & chloride in the Loop of Henle; Fast & Powerful
Thiazide Diuretics: Act by inhibiting tubular reabsorption of sodium, potassium, & chloride in the Distal Convoluted Tubule; HCO3 is reabsorbed causing Metabolic Alkalosis; Less potent than Loop Diuretics.
Osmotic Diuretics (Mannitol): Large molecular substances that pass into the tubules through the glomerular membrane & are not reabsorbed; Pull a lot of fluid; Used for Tx of cerebral edema - reduce brain swelling & control seizures.
Aldosterone: An adrenal hormone that increases sodium reabsorption & potassium secretion in response to: hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypovolemia, & low CO
Henderson-Hasselbach equation: pH = pK + Log HCO3/H2CO3
What is the Anion Gap: Used to determine if the pt's metabolic acidosis is caused by the accumulation of fixed acid, which 'eats up' HCO3, or by the direct loss of HCO3.
Anion Gap equation: Na+ - (HCO3 + CL)
Anion Gap ranges: Normal: 9-14 = losing HCO3; > 14 = Pt is making fixed acids
Causes of losing HCO3: Kidney failure(acute or chronic), severe diarrhea
Causes of making fixed acids: Lactic acidosis caused by shock or hypoxia, ketoacidosis from DKA/starvation, or aspirin O.D.
Poop =_____ & Puke = _____ Bicarb & Acid
What is the major cation & the major anions? Cation: Na+; Anions: HCO3- & Cl-
Created by: vgflgirl