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Pathology Test 4

CNS, Urinary, Abdomen & Reproductive

What is a localize "ballooning" or outpouching of a vessel wall? aneurysm
What are some causes of an aneurysm? trauma, infection, congenital defects, and disease
What are some modalities to diagnosis an aneurysm? MRI, CT, ultrasound
What are some treatment options for an aneurysm? "watch & wait", drugs to lower BP, coil emboilization, surgical clip, grafting, stenting
What is another term for a teratoma? dermoid cyst
What kind of cyst is one that is lined on the inside with hairy skin? dermoid cyst
In what location are dermoid cysts common to occur at? ovaries
What is the treatment for a dermoid cyst? surgical removal recommended because if left in place it can become malignant
What are the two functions of the kidneys? maintains homeostasis by filtering the blood & waste products are eliminated through the kidneys
What does IVP stand for? intravenous pyelogram
What does IVU stand for? intravenous urography
What does an IVU & IVP measure? excretory function: kidney filling, filtration, and excretion
What is the congential anomaly called when there are two collecting systems to a kidney? bifid/ duplicating collecting systems; can be bilateral or unilateral
What is the agenesis of a kidney? congenital absence of kidney
If there is agenesis of a kidney is there agenesis of the ureter too? yes
What is the treatment for agenesis of a kidney? nothing; one can survive with one kidney
What is the congenital deformity when the kidneys are fused at the poles? horseshoe kidneys
What are the higher risk factors when one has horseshoe kidneys? urinary obstruction, stone formation, vesicoureteral reflux, infection, trauma, & Wilms tumor
What is vesicoureteral reflux? reflux from the bladder up to the kidneys
What condition is when there is excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain? hydrocephalus
What are the two types of hydrocephalus? *internal hydrocephalus *external hydrocephalus
What is internal hydrocephalus? excessive cerebrospinal fluid is within the ventricles
What is external hydrocephalus? excessive cerebrospinal fluid is in the subarachnoid space around an atrophied brain
What is an atrophied brain? small and underdeveloped
What causes hydrocephalus? *blockage of the CSF flow inside of the head *problems with the body absorbing the CSF *over production of CSF
What is the most common treatment for hydrocephalus? shunts; from left ventricle to a vein, cardiac atrium or peritoneum
What is anencephaly? a major portion of the brain & skull is absent
What are some characteristics of an individual with anencephaly? *bulging eyes, shallow orbits *trunk is short with broad shoulders *head arises directly from trunk and cannot be flexed
What is the fold of dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres longitudinally? falx cerebri
What meninge layer makes up the falx cerebri? dura mater
what is the condition called when there is excess fluid in the peritoneum? ascites
How is prostate cancer diagnosed? blood test (PSA) or digital rectum exam
What is it called when the prostate is removed due to cancer? prostatectomy
What happens in brachytherapy when treating prostate cancer? 90-120 seeds are placed into the prostate; these seeds are part of radiation therapy treatment
What type of imaging is used for prostate cancer? transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
What is another name for fibroids? myoma
What are uterine fibroids? small benign tumors that develop in the uterus
What imaging is used with individuals who have fibroids? MRI & ultrasound
What does -ptosis mean? prolapse or drooping of any organ
What is nephroptosis? one kidney is found in the lower abdomen or pelvis region
What does the ureter on the prolapse kidney look like normally? shorter than the other ureter and normally just communicates directly with the urinary bladder
T/F: nephroptosis can happen bilaterally. true
What is renal ectopia? the kidneys are in an abnormal position or place.
T/F: Nephroptosis is considered an ectopic kidney. true
What disease is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts in both kidneys, replacing kidney tissue? polycystic kidney disease
What is the treatment for polycystic kidney disease? no known cure; meds for pain, dialysis, surgery to remove cysts for temp. relief
Will a kidney transplant treat polycystic kidney disease? not completely, it has a chance of redeveloping because its a genetic disorder
What imaging modalities are used to diagnosis polycystic kidney disease? CT & ultrasound
When is dialysis performed on an individual with polycystic kidney disease? when the kidney starts to fail
What is the birth defect that is an incomplete closure of the vertebral canal, usually in the lumbosacral area? spina bifida
What disorder is one of the most common malformations of the spine involving the neural arch? spina bifida
What are the two types of spina bifida? *spina bifida occulta *spina bifida manifesta; more severe (nerve damage)
What is the difference between spina bifida occulta & manifesta? occulta- incomplete closure of the spine w/o disturbance of the spinal cord; manifesta- incomplete closure of the spine w/ disturbance of the spinal cord
What are the meninges? protective covering of the spinal cord
What are the two types of spina bifida manifesta? *meningocele *myelomeningocele
What is the difference between meningocele & mylomeningocele spina bifida? meningocele is when just the meninges are pushed through the opening of the vertebrae. myelomeningocele is when both the meninges and spinal cord are pushed through the opening of the spine
What is another name for spina bifida manifesta? open spina bifida
Are conjoined twins identical or fraternal? identical
What are the odds of conjoined twins? 1 out of 200,000 births
what is another name for the mermaid syndrome? sirenomelia
What is sirenomelia? mermaid syndrome; where an individual is born with single lower extremities
Since there is an unknown reason why sirenomelia occurs what kind of disease is this? idiopathic
What is the treatment for sirenomelia? almost always fatal
What does UTI stand for? urinary tract infection
What is the second most common type of infection in the body? UTI
What is the treatment for UTIs? antibiotics
What percentage of kidney stones are radiodense? 80-85%
What is the medical term for kidney stones? renal calculi
List some causes of kidney stones? *decrease in urine volume (dehydration) *excess stone-forming substances in urine *obstructions or inflammation *meds *gout or hyperparathyroidism present
What are the 5 varieties of kidney stones? *calcium; most common *oxalate (phosphate) *magnesium ammonium phosphate *uric acid; gout related *cystine
What is hydronephrosis? abnormal dilation of renal pelvis
How can spina bifida be prevented? women who take a daily multivitamin with B folic acid prior to and during pregnancy can reduce risk by 73%
What is the treatment for kidney stones? *increase fluids to pass stone naturally *analgesics for pain *cystoscopic retrieval *lithotripsy w/ or w/o laser *chemolysis *surgery
What treatment plan for kidney stones uses shock waves to shatter the stones into sand-sized particles which can be passed through the urethra? lithotripsy
What treatment for kidney stones uses medication introduced into the upper urinary tract by a percutaneous catheter? chemolysis
What are some advantages to lithotripsy rather than surgery? *quicker *normally an outpatient procedure *less expensive than surgery
What are staghorn kidney stones? a complete or partial cast of the calyces and pelvis of the kidneys
How are staghorn kidney stones treated? antibiotics and surgical removal
T/F: stones can form inside the diverticula inside the bladder. true
Whats the difference between simple renal cyst and polycystic kidney disease? polycystic kidney disease is genetic but both form cysts on the kidney. renal cysts can be removed and treated unlike polycystic disease.
What is another name for hypernephroma? renal cell carcinoma
What is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults? renal cell carcinoma
What is the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma? if caught earlier, the longer the survival rate
What is another name for nephroblastoma? wilms tumor
What is the most common kidney cancer that affects children? wilms tumor/ nephroblastoma
What is urothelial carcinoma? bladder cancer
Created by: mokapis