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AP Psych Terms

Hindsight bias term used to explain the tendency of people to overestimate their ability to have predicted an outcome that could not possibly have been predicted
Illusory Correlation the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists
Scatter plots visual representations of the relationships or associations between two numerical variables, which are represented as points(or dots), each plotted at an x and y axis - does not define variables as dependent or independent
Statistical significance A mathematical technique to measure whether the results of a study are likely to be true - calculated as the probability that an effect observed in a research study is occurring because of chance
Personal space the area surrounding an individual that is perceived as private by the individual, who may regard a movement into the space by another person as intrusive-vary somewhat in different cultures, general 3 feet around individual
Gender role Gender role is a set of expectations held by society about the ways in which men and women are supposed to behave based on their gender
Cognitive neuroscience academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental processes, addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by the brain
Inattentional blindness the failure to notice a fully-visible, but unexpected object because attention was engaged on another task, event, or object
Night terrors A disorder that interrupts your sleep. Individuals wake overcome by fear and an increased heart and respiratory rate. Unlike nightmares, night terrors do not occur in REM and there is no recollection of a bad dream
REM rebound when you have a chance to fall asleep after sleep deprivation you have a tendency to get more REM sleep than you would normally get. This is your body's way of trying to catch up on its REM sleep
Near-death experience the sensations reported by people who have come close to dying or were clinically dead for a period of time - report having feelings of total peace or extreme fear, like being in a tunnel, seeing or going towards a light, having an awareness of being dead
Primary sex characteristics body structures that are specific to sex - females have ovaries whereas men have testes - related to reproduction
Secondary sex characteristics the physical features other than reproductive organs that distinguish men from women - nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as breasts (on females) and an adam's apple on men
Cross-sectional study type of study in which people of different ages are examined at the same time(s) - usually done with cohorts, so that researchers can examine how people of different ages perform, behave, or respond to a particular function
Longitudinal study people are studied and restudied over a period of time - design is good for looking at the effects or changes over a long period of time, usually as people age
Place theory refers to how sound is received and perceived by the human ear and how sound waves affect different areas of the tympanic membrane to create the perception of different types of sounds
Frequency theory states that there are pulses that travel up the auditory nerve, carrying the information about sound to the brain for processing, and that the rate of this pulse matches the frequency of whatever tone you are hearing exactly
Kinesthesis an ability to sense body position and the movement of muscles, tendons, and joints (moving between parked cars)
Vestibular sense the body's set of mechanisms that monitor and adjust the body's sense of balance and orientation to the world - what keeps the body upright while standing, sitting or walking and is primarily located in the inner ear
Phi phenomenon lights next to each other blinking on and off in succession appear to actually move (string of lights across a house)
Parapsychology study of paranormal phenomenon - occurrences that appear to violate scientific laws - in some cases, people who experience paranormal phenomenon may be considered mentally ill or delusional but Parapsychologists would not agree with that in all cases
Associative learning learning that two different events occur or happen together
Higher order conditioning classical conditioning-a situation in which a stimulus that was neutral(a light)is paired with a conditioned stimulus (tone that has been conditioning with food to produce salivating)to produce the same conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus
Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one's environment (directions to your house)
Imagery formation of any mental pictures - we can enhance the processing of information into the memory system
Mood-congruent memory when humans store memories, they not only store the event, but they also store a memory of the mood they were in at the time
Misinformation effect when we witness an event and then get some incorrect information about that event, we incorporate that incorrect information (misinformation) into our memory of the event resulting in an altered memory of the event
Source amnesia inability to remember from where existing knowledge was acquired - believed to be caused by a sort of disconnect between semantic memory and episodic memory
Belief perseverance tendency to reject convincing proof and become even more tenaciously held when the belief has been publicly announced to others
Intuition person's capacity to obtain or have direct knowledge and/or immediate insight, without observation or reason - "gut feeling" you get
Telegraphic speech speech that sounds very much like a telegram, has words arranged in an order that makes sense, and contains almost all nouns and verbs - occurs at about age 2 (get milk)
Aphasia inability to use language appropriately and may include problems speaking language, hearing language, and reading language - usually results from damage to parts of the brain such as Broca's area or Wernicke's area
Linguistic determinism human language limits and determines human thought patterns and knowledge. This concept makes an assumption that language both reflects and limits human mentality and its ability to make cross-cultural connections
Factor analysis type of statistical procedure that is conducted to identify clusters or groups of related items (called factors) on a test
Emotional intelligence an understanding of how words, actions, facial expressions and body language affect interactions and relationships between people
Stereotype threat when worry about conforming to a negative stereotype leads to underperformance on a test or other task by a member of the stereotyped group (i.e., men, women)
Feel good, do good phenomenon you are more likely to help other people when you are already in a good mood
Relative deprivation when you have the perception that you are worse off than these other people you compare yourself to
Self concept the total of your thoughts and feelings that define your "self" as an object
Social cognitive perception we learn behaviors through observation, modeling, and motivation such as positive reinforcement, strengthened if someone models a behavior he or she has seen rewarded
Reciprocal determinism according to Albert Bandura, a person's behavior is both influenced by and influences a person's personal factors and the environment
External locus of control more likely to believe that his or her fate is determined by chance or outside forces that are beyond their own personal control
Internal locus of control you believe that you control your own destiny and that your behaviors are under your control
Spotlight effect our tendency to think that other people are watching us more closely than they actually are
Eclectic approach combines aspects of two or more different approaches to meet the needs of a client
Meta-analysis a research strategy where instead of conducting new research with participants, the researchers examine the results of several previous studies
Central route of persuasion focuses on facts and the content of the message in order to convince the listener, as opposed to relying on peripheral factors like the personality of the speaker, or how the message was delivered
Peripheral route of persuasion when someone evaluates a message, such as an advertisement, on the basis of physical attractiveness, background music, or other surface-level characteristics rather than the actual content of the message
Deindividualization people will do things in groups they otherwise would not because they feel less responsible for their actions and less like an individual
Scapegoat theory people may be prejudice toward a group in order to vent their anger
Just-world phenomenon the tendency for people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Frustration-aggression principle frustration can produce feelings of anger, which in turn can generate feelings of aggression and aggressive behavior
Mere exposure effect you begin to like something simply because you are exposed to it over and over again
Self-disclosure refers to times when you share very private, intimate secrets about yourself with another person
Social-responsibility norm refer to the expectations, responsibilities, and behaviors we adopt in certain situations
Created by: msperl999