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55 terms not in your text book

Hindsight Bias is a term used in psychology to explain the tendency of people to overestimate their ability to have predicted an outcome that could not possibly have been predicted.
Illusory Correlation is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists.
Scatter Plots A type of display using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data.
Statistical Significance the probability of some result from a statistical test occurring by chance
Personal Space refers to the distance needed between people when they interact.
Gender Role is a set of expectations held by society about the ways in which men and women are supposed to behave based on their gender.
Cognitive Neuroscience the branch of neuroscience that studies the biological foundations of mental phenomena
Inattentional blindness is the event in which an individual fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight.
Night Terrors also known as pavor nocturnusand sleep terrors, is a parasomnia sleep disorder characterized by extreme terror and a temporary inability to regain full consciousness.
REM rebound The increase in frequency, duration and depth of REM sleep after periods of sleep deprivation.
Near-death Experience an unusual experience taking place on the brink of death and recounted by a person after recovery, typically an out-of-body experience or a vision of a tunnel of light.
Primary Sex Characteristics the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism
Secondary sex characteristics A feature that distinguishes the two sexes of a species, but is not directly part of the reproductive system.
Cross-sectional Study is one type of study in which people of different ages are examined at the same time(s)
Longitudinal Study a type of research method used to discover relationships between variables that are unrelated to various background variables. This observational research technique involves studying the same group of individuals over an extended time period
Place Theory is a term that refers to how sound is received and perceived by the human ear. It refers to how sound waves affect different areas of the tympanic membrane, or eardrum, to create the perception of different types of sounds.
Frequency Theory The theory that a tone produces a rate of vibration in the basilar membrane equal to its frequency, with the result that pitch can be coded by the frequency of the neural response.
Kinesthesis an ability to sense body position and the movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.
Vestibular sense the sense that allows an organism to sense body movement, direction, and acceleration, and to attain and maintain postural equilibrium and balance
Phi phenomenon An optical illusion defined by Max Wertheimer in the Gestalt psychology in 1912; an optical illusion is based in the principle that the human eye is capable of perceiving movement from pieces of information
Parapsychology the scientific study of events that cannot be explained by what scientists know about nature and the world; basically the supernatural
Associative learning process by which an element is taught through association with a separate, pre-occurring element
Higher Order Conditioning A form of learning in which a stimulus is first made meaningful or consequential for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a basis for learning about some new stimulus.
Cognitive Map is a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Imagery is simply the formation of any mental pictures
Mood-congruent memory is when humans store memories, they not only store the event, but they also store a memory of the mood they were in at the time
Misinformation Effect A memory bias that occurs when misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory
Source Amnesia the inability to remember where, when or how previously learned information has been acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge
Belief Perseverance a psychological phenomenon in which there is a tendency to persist with one's held beliefs despite the fact that the information is inaccurate or that evidence shows otherwise.
Intuition the quality or ability of having such direct perception or quick insight.
Telegraphic Speech s speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic and efficient.
Aphasia the loss of a previously held ability to speak or understand spoken or written language, due to disease or injury of the brain.
Linguistic determinism the idea that language and its structures limit and determine human knowledge or thought, as well as thought processes such as categorization, memory, and perception
Factor analysis a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors
Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. Controversial on whether it is actual intelligence.
Stereotype threat refers to being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group.
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon good mood increases the likelihood of a person doing a good deed.
Relative deprivation the lack of resources to sustain the diet, lifestyle, activities and amenities that an individual or group are accustomed to or that are widely encouraged or approved in the society to which they belong.
Self-concept a collection of beliefs about oneself that includes elements such as academic performance, gender roles and sexuality,and racial identity.
Social cognitive perception attitudes and attitude change, stereotyping and prejudice, decision-making, the self-concept, social communication and influence, and intergroup discrimination.
Reciprocal determinism is the theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment
External locus of control people believethat their decisions and life are controlled by environmental factors which they cannot influence, or by chance or fate
Internal locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them.
Spotlight effect a common form of social anxiety that causes people to have a tendency to overestimate the extent to which surrounding others notice aspects of one's appearance or behavior, and the extent to which they are aware of it.
Eclectic approach is an approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of psychotherapy. It teaches them there are other approaches to do the same thing and hence bettering themselves.
Meta-analysis methods that focus on contrasting and combining results from different studies, in the hope of identifying patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results
Central route of persuasion involves being persuaded by the arguments or the content of the message. For example, after hearing a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you found the candidates views and arguments very convincing.
Peripheral route of persuasion involves being persuaded in a manner that is not based on the arguments or the message content. For example, after reading a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you like the sound of the person's voice.
Deindividualization a concept in social psychology that is generally thought of as the losing of self-awareness[1] in groups
Scapegoat theory According to this theory, people may be prejudice toward a group in order to vent their anger. In essence, they use the group they dislike as their target for all of their anger.
Just-World phenomenon is the cognitive bias (or assumption) that a person's actions always bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, so that all noble actions are eventually rewarded and all evil actions are eventually punished.
Frustration-aggression principle aggression is the result of blocking, or frustrating, a person's efforts to attain a goal.
Mere exposure effect a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them.
Self-disclosure the act or an instance of disclosing; exposure; revelation.
Social-responsibility norm in reference to people in positions of leadership or responsibility. People in these positions are expected to help others. ie. Heros
Created by: valeriusjoshua