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Blood and Hemostasis

Phys Exam 3

Hematocrit the fraction of the blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells
Major components of Blood Plasma (Water, electrolytes, proteins) Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
Erythrocytes *RBC's *carry O2 *Have Heme (iron) which binds O2 *Produced by erythropoiesis in long/flat bones *Kidneys stimulate RBC production by hormone erythropoietin
Blood type A, B, AB or O AB universal recipient, O universal Donor
5 types of leukocytes *Neutrophils *Eosinophils *Basophils *Monocytes *Lymphocytes
Functions of Leukocytes IMMUNE SYSTEM defend against viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections, I.D. and destroy cancer cells Phagocytosis of debris from dead or injured cells
Hemostasis Stopping bleeding
Three steps of Hemostasis Vascular spasm, formation of platelet plug, blood coagulation
Neutrophils *Majority of WBCs *Phagocytic and short lived *↑ in number during infections
Eosinophils *Small proportion of WBC's *Phagocytic and defend againts parasites
Basophils *Non-phagocytic and defend using toxins *Allergic reactions - produce histamine and heparin
Monocytes Large phagocytic macrophages that wander blood looking for invaders
Lymphocytes Large portion of WBC's Mainly involved in immune reactions (B Cells and T cells)
Platelet adhesion Blood vessel damage → Exposure of subendothelium → Von Wollibrandt's Factor binds to collagen fibers → Platelets bind to vWf → platelet adhesion
Aggregation Aggregated platelets release secretory products that increases the stickiness of the platelets and cause vasoconstriction to reduce blood flow to the area (reduces bleeding)
Chemicals that prevent platelet aggregation Prostacyclin Nitric Oxide Produced/released by healthy endothelial cells
Created by: claritamaria