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MODs 17-24

meyes 9th edition

Audition sense or act of hearing
Hair Cells in hearing they trigger impulses at the base of the nerve cell
Gate Control Theory Theory-spinalcord contains a neurological "gate"/blocks pain signals or lets them go to the brain "gate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by info coming from the brain
Phantom limb sensation people feel pain or movement then the limb is not there
taste has survival functions sweet-energy, salty, sour- potentially toxic acid, bitter- potential poison, unami- proteins to grow and repair tissues
kinesthesis the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
vestibular sense the sense of your heads position including the sense of balance
sensory interaction principle that one sense may influence another as when the smell of food influneces taste
parapsychology the study of paranormal phenomena inclduing esp and psychokinesis
extrasensory perception (ESP) the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; inclueds telepathy, clairvoyance, and prerecognition
learning process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
classical conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
associative learning learning that certain events occur together the events may be two stimuli (classical) or a response and its consequences (operant)
acquisition in classical conditioning the initial stage when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response in operant conditioning the strengthening of a reinforced response
unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning a stimulus that unconditionally (naturally and automatically) triggers a response (unconditioned response)
conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus (us) come to trigger a conditioning response
unconditioned response in classical conditioning an unlearned, naturally response (salviation) to an unconditioned stimulus (food in the mouth
conditioned response in classical conditioning a learned response to a previously neutral (now conditioned) stimulus
cognitive learning the acquisition of mental information whether by observing events by watching others, or through language
extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response occurs in classical cond. when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant cond. when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization the tendency, one a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Discrimination in classical cond. the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal and unconditioned stimulus
ivan pavalov While studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli
operate conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
operate behavior behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect thorndikes principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcerers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. a positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response
negative reinforcement increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthen the response
punishment an event that tends to decrease behavior it follows
B.F. Skinner he wondered how can we more carefully measure the effect of consequences on chosen behavior?The operant chamber, often called “the Skinner box,” allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in response to different rates of reinforcement.
learning the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
cognitive learning the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language
latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
observational learning learning by observing others
modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
banduras experiment bobo doll experiment Kids saw adults punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors These kids were then put in a toy-deprived situation… and acted out the same behaviors they had seen.
mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. the brains mirroring of anothers action may enable imitation and empathy
encoding the processing of information into the memory system for example by extracting meaning
memory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
storage the retention of encoded information over time
sensory memory the immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short term memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten
long term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. includes knowledge skills and experiences
chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically
mnemonics memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
spacing effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
implicit memory retention independent of conscious recollection ( aka non-declarative memory)
explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (aka declarative memory)
storage the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage
mood congruent momory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood
flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last (recency memory) and first items (primacy effect) in a list
anterograde amnesia an inability to form new memories
retrograde amnesia an inability to retrieve information from ones past
proactive interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
repression in psychoanalytic theory the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings and memories
misinformation effect incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event
source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced heard about read about or imagined.
deja vu that eerie sense that ive experienced this`before...cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating
concept a mental grouping of similar objects events ideas and people
prototype a mental image or best example of a category matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
algorithm a methodical logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error prone
heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems effieiently usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms
confirmation bias a tendency to search for information hat supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
mental set a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way often a way that has been successful in the past
intuition an effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning
overconfidence the tendency to be more confident htan correct to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
belief perseverance clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
convergent thinking narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution
divergent thinking expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions)
Created by: 100006528159779
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