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# BOOK FINAL

### Forces, Energy, and Motion

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Speed/Average Speed | The speed of an object is a measure of how far something moves in a given amount of time Average speed is a way to calculate the speed of an object that may not always be moving at a constant speed |

Force | A push or a pull |

Gravitational Force | The force of attraction on all masses |

Elastic Potential Energy | When an object has stretched or compressed |

Potential Energy | The energy an object has because of its position, composition, or chemical composition |

Output Force(Load) | The force a machine exerts on an object |

Input Force(Effort) | The force you apply to a machine through a distance |

Insulator | A material through which charges cannot move easily |

Direct Current(DC) | A current in which charges always flow in the same direction |

Circuit | A complete, closed path through which electric charges can flow |

Magnetic Field | The area surrounding a magnet where magnetic forces can be detected |

Velocity | Speed in a specific direction |

Net Force | The combination of all the forces acting on an object |

Kinetic Energy | The energy of motion |

Gravitational Potential Energy | The energy an object has due to its position above the ground |

Fulcrum | The fixed point at which a bar pivots |

Work | The use of force to move an object some distance in the direction of the force |

Semiconductor | A special class of materials that conduct electric charge better than electrical insulators but not as well as electrical conductors |

Resistance | The opposition to the flow of electric charge |

Series Circuit | A circuit in which all parts are connected in a row that forms one path for the electric charges to flow |

Electromagnet | A heavy duty magnet used in scrap yards An iron core wrapped with electric wire |

Acceleration | The rate at which velocity changes |

Inertia | The tendency of all objects to resist a change in motion |

Chemical Potential Energy | The energy an object has due to its chemical bonds (food) |

Mechanical Energy | The energy possessed by an object due to its motion and position |

Conductor | A material through which charges can move freely |

Alternating Current(AC) | A current in which charges repeatedly shift from flowing in one direction to flowing the reverse direction |

Load(Circuit) | A device that uses electrical energy to operate |

Parallel Circuit | A circuit in which charges have more than one path that they can follow |

Permanent Magnet | A magnet which holds a magnetic force |

Formula- Average Speed | average speed= distance/time |

Formula- Acceleration | average acceleration= (final velocity - starting velocity)/time |

Formula- Net Force | 1N + 2N= 3N (If forces are acting in the same direction, add. If forces are acting in opposite directions, subtract) |

Formula- Force | Force= Mass x Acceleration |

Formula- Kinetic Energy | 1/2mv(squared) m=mass v=speed |

Formula- Mechanical Energy | Kinetic Energy + Mechanical potential energy =Mechanical Energy or ME=1/2mv(squared) + mgh |

Formula- Mechanical Advantage | Mechanical Advantage= Output force/input force |

Formula- Work | work=force x distance |

Formula- Power | power= energy/time |

Created by:
18Fontek0105