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# BOOK FINAL

### Forces, Energy, and Motion

TermDefinition
Speed/Average Speed The speed of an object is a measure of how far something moves in a given amount of time Average speed is a way to calculate the speed of an object that may not always be moving at a constant speed
Force A push or a pull
Gravitational Force The force of attraction on all masses
Elastic Potential Energy When an object has stretched or compressed
Potential Energy The energy an object has because of its position, composition, or chemical composition
Output Force(Load) The force a machine exerts on an object
Input Force(Effort) The force you apply to a machine through a distance
Insulator A material through which charges cannot move easily
Direct Current(DC) A current in which charges always flow in the same direction
Circuit A complete, closed path through which electric charges can flow
Magnetic Field The area surrounding a magnet where magnetic forces can be detected
Velocity Speed in a specific direction
Net Force The combination of all the forces acting on an object
Kinetic Energy The energy of motion
Gravitational Potential Energy The energy an object has due to its position above the ground
Fulcrum The fixed point at which a bar pivots
Work The use of force to move an object some distance in the direction of the force
Semiconductor A special class of materials that conduct electric charge better than electrical insulators but not as well as electrical conductors
Resistance The opposition to the flow of electric charge
Series Circuit A circuit in which all parts are connected in a row that forms one path for the electric charges to flow
Electromagnet A heavy duty magnet used in scrap yards An iron core wrapped with electric wire
Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes
Inertia The tendency of all objects to resist a change in motion
Chemical Potential Energy The energy an object has due to its chemical bonds (food)
Mechanical Energy The energy possessed by an object due to its motion and position
Conductor A material through which charges can move freely
Alternating Current(AC) A current in which charges repeatedly shift from flowing in one direction to flowing the reverse direction
Load(Circuit) A device that uses electrical energy to operate
Parallel Circuit A circuit in which charges have more than one path that they can follow
Permanent Magnet A magnet which holds a magnetic force
Formula- Average Speed average speed= distance/time
Formula- Acceleration average acceleration= (final velocity - starting velocity)/time
Formula- Net Force 1N + 2N= 3N (If forces are acting in the same direction, add. If forces are acting in opposite directions, subtract)
Formula- Force Force= Mass x Acceleration
Formula- Kinetic Energy 1/2mv(squared) m=mass v=speed
Formula- Mechanical Energy Kinetic Energy + Mechanical potential energy =Mechanical Energy or ME=1/2mv(squared) + mgh