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Psychology Exam 2

Chapter 7: Learning

What is learning? a relatively long lasting change in thought or behavior produced by environmental events.
What is associative learning? learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
What is observational learning? learning through observing, it is a form of cognitive learning
What are mirror neurons? allow us to mimic what they see and do
What are the pro-social and antisocial effects of observational learning? Pro-social: people will observe that they love partying so they continue to party Antisocial: people might observe that they do not like partying so they continue to stay alone
What is conditioning? the process of learning associations
Classical conditioning the process involved when an organism learns to associate two events
Operant conditioning learning new connections between acts and their consequences
Who did the original work on classical conditioning? Ivan Pavlov
What was the structure of Pavlov's original experiment? Pairing neutral stimuli with an unconditioned response to an unconditioned stimulus to see if the dog connected the link between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus
Learning depends upon neural plasticity the capacity for neurons to change the way in which they function in response to experience
Plasticity always involves changes at the synapse changes on the ways in which neurons communicate with each other
learning involves one of three kinds of changes at the synapse: presynaptic facilitation, long-term potentiation (LTP), and new synapses
Presynaptic facilitation after learning some neurons send out a stronger stimulus
Long-term potentiation (LTP) after learning some neurons become more sensitive to the signals they have been receiving all along
New synapes after learning, some neurons form entirely new connections with other neurons
Unconditioned pair an unconditioned stimulus that produces an unconditioned response
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) a stimulus that naturally/automatically triggers a response
Unconditioned response (UCR) an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned pair a conditioned stimulus that produces a conditioned response
Conditioned stimulus (CS) an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after associated with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned response (CR) a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
Overshadowing a very dominant component of a complex stimulus will be so strong that it becomes the only conditioned stimulus
Blocking difficult to attach a new conditioned stimulus to a well established conditioned stimulus/unconditioned stimulus relationship
Acquisition is the initial learning, in which an association is formed between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
How is a classically conditioned response extinguished? by presenting a conditioned stimulus and not following through with the unconditioned stimulus. by doing this numerous times the person no longer expects the unconditioned stimulus
What is spontaneous recovery? after a period of time, when you present the conditioned stimulus again, the person will expect the unconditioned stimulus again
What is generalization in classical conditioning? the conditioned response will be made to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus; the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
What is discrimination in classical conditioning? making the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus and not to similar unreinforced stimulus; the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
How does higher-order conditioning work? an already set conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus and the neutral stimulus soon becomes a conditioned stimulus as well
What role do expectancies play in classical conditioning? they explain why organisms aren't conditioned to all neutral stimuli that are present prior to an unconditioned stimulus
What role do biological predispositions play in classical conditioning? a large role, because the subject is limited in their learning capabilities based on their biology, biological predispositions allow us to be conditioned, but some organisms are unable to do so because of how they are made.
What did Garcia and Koelling find? that animals tend to avoid food with a certain taste because it is associated with bad experiences (taste aversion). Different kinds of animals are biologically prepared to learn different kinds of associations with different degrees of difficulty.
Reinforcement is independent of the animal's response classical conditioning
Reinforcement depends on the animal's response operant conditioning
Operant conditioning involves a three-term contingency antecedents, response, and consequences
antecedents cues indicating whether some consequence will occur for a behavior
response the behavior being made
consequences the reaction to the response
The law of effect the effect of a response determines whether the tendency to perform that response is strengthened or weakened
Who developed modern operant conditioning B. F. Skinner
Operant conditioning is based on the concept of reinforcement
What is the role of biological predispositions in operant conditioning? it limits the subject, but also easier to reinforce
What is a reinforcer? a reward/punishment that makes behavior more/less likely
What is positive reinforcement? Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
What is negative reinforcement? prevents a bad situation from occurring and response is more likely. punishment.
positive punishment the response is followed by an aversive stimulus
negative punishment the response is followed by with drawal of a desirable stimulus
Reinforcement is more effective with: more pairings of the response and the reinforcement and shorter delays between the response and reinforcement
What is shaping? gradually training an animal to make a response that is not normally in its repertoire. It relates to the concept of successive reinforcement because it helps use the characteristics that the animal currently has, and helps guid it to a new characteristic
What is a primary reinforcer? naturally rewarding or punishing
What is a secondary reinforcer? gained through learning
What is continuous reinforcement? to reward after every wanted response; produces the fastest learning
What is partial reinforcement? to reward after a certain number of responses; produces the greatest resistance to extinction
Fixed-ratio schedule reinforces a response only after specified number of responses
variable-ratio scheule reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses- hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
fixed-interval schedule reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses
What is learned helplessness if a person is exposed to uncontrollable aversive stimulation, s/he will learn that responding is ineffective and will stop trying
What are the major effects of punishment? teaches discrimination among situations, can teach fear/anxiety, increases aggression, deppression, and low self-esteem
What factors make punishment more effective in changing behavior? actually aversive, intense, immediate
Created by: cawleyae