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Ch. 17 Phys. Science

TermDefinition
Element any pure substance that is made of only one kind of atom.
Aristotle believed in what 4 elements? Air, Fire, Earth, and Water
Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, and Antoine Lavoisier believed... True scientific knowledge is gained by observing, experimenting, and reasoning
Liquids Mercury (Hg), Bromine (Br)
Gases Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), Radon (Rn)
Monotomic elements Have ONE atom in natural state. He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Ra
Diatomic elements Have TWO atoms in natural state. H, N, O, Fl, Cl, Br, I
Dmitri Mendeleev Arranged the periodic table as it is today-discovered blank spots in the periodic table
Johann Dobereiner (1829) placed the elements in order of increasing MASS
Periodicity the repetition of certain properties at regular intervals when elements were placed in order of atomic MASS.
Henry Mosley arranged elements in order of increasing atomic number
Group -> period
Family (up/down) series
Group tells how many valence electrons an element has
Traits of metals luster (shiny), malleable (can be molded), conduct electricity, ductile
Traits of non-metals LACK luster, brittle, DON'T conduct electricity, NOT ductile
horizontal rows are called periods or series
The period number tells how many electrons are in an atoms outer shell in their GROUND STATE
Example...Sulfer is in the 3rd period, how many energy levels does it have? 3
The more energy levels an atom has... the LARGER it is
Atomic diameter goes.. Largest -> smallest and smallest (at the top) to largest (at the bottom)
Group number tells how many energy levels and atom has
only _ electrons can fit in the first energy level 2
ca+ions are positive +
anions are e g a t i v e negative -
Bonds: taken, not shared
Metal/non-metal= ionic bond
Electron affinity deals with the strength of attraction of electrons to UNBONDED atoms
Electronegativity deals with an atom's ability to attract and hold electrons when BONDED to other atoms
Covalent bonds non-metal/non-metal -> sharing electrons
metallic bonds metal/metal -> everyone shares the electons
Electron sea theory Atoms with weak electronegativities usually have only a few loosely held valence electrons.
Created by: holcombashlyn