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Pharmacology Test #2

Bowel Disorder Drugs - Anayansi

QuestionAnswer
how long does acute diarrhea last? 3 days to 2 weeks
how long does chronic diarrhea last? 3-4 weeks
causes of acute diarrhea? bacteria, viruses, drug induced, nutrition factors, protozoa
causes of chronic diarrhea? tumors, diabetes mellitus, addison's disease, hyperthyroidism, irritable bowel, AIDS
what do adsorbents do? coat the walls of the GI tract
how do adsorbents work? they bind to the causative bacteria or toxin which is then eliminated through the stool
examples of adsorbents: pepto-bismol, activated charcoal, aluminum hydroxide
how do anticholinergics work? decrease intestinal muscle tone and peristalsis of GI tract
what is the result of anticholnergics? slows movement of fecal matter through the GI tract
Belladonna alkaloids is what class of antidiarrheal? anticholinergic
what are some adverse effects of anticholinergics? urinary retention, headache, dizziness, confusion, anxiety, drowsiness, dry skin, flushing, blurred vision, hypotension, bradycardia, glaucoma, GI obstructions, myasthenia gravis, paralytic ileum, toxic megacolon
what are some adverse effects of opiates drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, nausea, vomiting, constipation, respiratory depression, hypotension, urinary retention, flushing
what are some adverse effects of adsorbents? increased bleeding time, constipation, dark stools, confusion, tinnitus, metallic taste, blue tongue
what are some contraindications of belladonna alkaloids? narrow-angle glaucoma, GI obstruction, myasthenia gravis, paralysis ileum and toxic megacolon
adsorbents decrease the adsorption of which medications? dogoxin, quinidine, hypoglycemic drugs
adsorbents can cause toxic effects on what medication? methotrexate
what medication is contraindicated for children or teenagers with chicken pox or influenza because of the risk of Reye's syndrome? bismuth subsalicylate (pepto bismol)
what are the types of laxatives? bulk forming, emollient, hyperosmotic, saline, stimulant
Bulk forming adverse effects? impaction, fluid overload, electrolyte imbalances, esophageal blockage
Emollient adverse effects? skin rashes, decreased absorption of vitamins, electrolyte imbalances, lipid pneumonia
Hyperosmotic adverse effects? abdomina bloating, electrolyte imbalances, rectal irritation
Saline adverse effects? magnesium toxicity, cramping, electrolyte imbalances, diarrhea, increased thirst
Stimulant adverse effects? nutrient malabsorption, skin rashes, gastric irritation, electrolyte imbalances, discolored urine, rectal irritation
before giving medications for irritable bowel syndrome, what general assessments should be checked first? liver functioning and cardiac disease
lactulose can be given to a patient who does not have history of constipation, why? to reduce high ammonia levels associated with liver failure
Created by: arflwr25