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AP Psych Unit 9

Chapter 10: Intelligence

Intelligence Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Charles Spearman Intelligence theorist who used factor analysis to figure out what a "g" factor or generalized intelligence all are a part of people with intelligence
Thurston's Primary Mental Abilities Seven primary mental abilities: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory
Factor Analysis A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
General Intelligence "g" A general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
Savant Syndrome A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill such as computation or drawing
Howard Gardner Came up with the multiple intelligence theory
Multiple Intelligence Theory Believed in 8 types of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist
Robert Sternberg Believed in multiple forms of intelligence but believed that everything could be boiled down to three types of intelligence and came up with the Triarchic Theory of intelligence
Triarchic Theory Belief in 3 types of intelligence: analytic intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
Emotional Intelligence The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
Creativity The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
5 Components of Creativity Expertise, Imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, a creative environment
Divergent thinking Thinking outside of the box
Convergent thinking Thinking along set patterns and processes
Intelligence test A method of assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
Alfred Binet Frenchman who built the best intelligence test of its time. Paid to develop the test by the Paris, France school system in order to determine what students would need remediation.
Lewis Terman American who took Binet's Paris test and translated it into English and changed some of the test items to fit American children. Renamed this version of the test the Stanford-Binet test.
Mental Age A measure of intelligence devised by Binet, which gives a number relative to what an individual should know at a given age in their lives.
Chronological Age A person's age in years.
Stanford-Binet Test The widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100. Average scores is 100 because the mental age is equal to the chronological age
Aptitude Tests A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude assesses the capacity to learn (aPtitude = Predict future performance)
Achievement Tests A test designed to assess what a person has learned up to that date, to assess your CURRENT knowledge (aChievement tests= Current knowledge)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test, contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
Standardization Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
Normal Curve A symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes. 68, 95, 99.7 Rule.
68-95-99.7 Rule In a normal distribution 68% of data falls in 1 standard deviation on either side of the mean, and 95% of data falls in 2 standard deviations on either side of the mean, 99.7% falls in 3 standard deviations on either side of the mean.
Reliability The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Validity The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Content Validity The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
Predictive Validity The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
Criterion The behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
Intellectual Disability A condition of limited mental ability indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
Down Syndrome A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
Stereotype Threat A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Analytical Intelligence Part of Sternberg's 3 Intelligences: Is assessed by intelligence tests which present well-defined problems as having a single right answer.
Creative Intelligence Part of Sternberg's 3 Intelligences: Is demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas
Practical Intelligence Part of Sternberg's 3 Intelligences: Is required for everyday tasks with multiple solutions.
Social Intelligence The know-how involved in successfully comprehending social situations
Cohort A group of people from a given time period
Crystallized intelligence Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
Fluid intelligence Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Heritability The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
Created by: thompsonce