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AP Psych Unit 5

Chapter 7: Learning

Adaptability The ability to adjust oneself readily to fit changed circumstances
Learning A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Associative Learning Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning)
Habituation Is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations
Classical Conditioning A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate two stimuli together. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
Behaviorism The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior and learning without reference to mental processes.
Pavlov Known as the father of classical conditioning. He was a Russian physiologist who believed in
Unconditioned Response (UR or UCR) In classical conditioning, the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS) In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
Neutral Stimulus The stimulus that is added and becomes the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning after repeated parings with the US or unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response (CR) In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)
Acquisition The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus and comes to elicit a conditioned response.
Higher-order conditioning Go through all the steps of classical conditioning then learn to associate something new with the new learning. For example For example, an animal might first learn to associate a bell with food, but then learn to associate a light with the bell.
Extinction The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)
Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Discrimination In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Expectancy In classical conditioning given the conditioned stimulus an organism expects the conditioned response
John Garcia and Robert Koelling Taste aversion and classical conditioning that proved that there might be biological predispositions that prevent somethings from being classically conditioned
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner The individuals famous for their classical conditioning experiment known as the "Little Albert" Experiment
"Little Albert" Experiment Watson and Rayner's experiment in which they classically conditioned a little child to be afraid of a white fluffy rat by associating the rat with a loud and obnoxious sound. The fear generalized to white fluffy animals and objects. Highly unethical today
B.F. Skinner The most famous psychologist most notable for his work in operant conditioning. And in his advocacy for behaviorism rather than cognitive research in psychology, which he couldn't stand
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Respondent Behavior Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
Operant Behavior Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Edward Thorndike Creator of the Law of Effect which is what Operant Conditioning is based on
Law of Effect Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Chamber A chamber that contains some object that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the behavior.
Shaping An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Reinforcement In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Positive Reinforcement Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food. ADDING SOMETHING GOOD TO INCREASE THE BEHAVIOR.I.E. giving students donuts in order to get them to come to a review session. If they come to the session they get donuts.
Negative Reinforcement Increasing behaviors by taking away negative stimuli such as pain. TAKING AWAY SOMETHING BAD OR AVERSIVE IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE BEHAVIOR. I.E. a car will beep until a person puts on their seat-belt then the beeping stops to reinforce the behavior
Primary Reinforcers An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Secondary Reinforcers A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a conditioned reinforcer.
Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Partial Reinforcement Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
Fixed-ratio Schedules In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Variable-Ratio Schedules In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Fixed-Interval Schedules In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Variable-Interval Schedules In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Punishment An event that decreases that behavior that it follows.
Positive Punishment ADDING A NEGATIVE STIMULUS IN ORDER TO DECREASE THE BEHAVIOR THAT FOLLOWS. I.E. spanking a child who has stolen something
Cognitive Map A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
Latent Learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Intrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
Extrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Observational Learning Learning by observing others
Modeling The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Mirror Neurons Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
Albert Bandura The key psychologist of note who pioneered the idea that people learn from those around them. His famous study is known as the "Bobo Doll Study" in which he tested children who observe violence vs. children who don't observe violence.
Prosocial Behavior Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
Conditioning Learning by association. There are two types of conditioning: classical and operant both indicate that someone learns to pair two events together in a sequence.
Stimulus Something that when given creates a response
Cognitive learning The acquisition of mental information whether by observing events by watching others or through language
Immediate reinforcers When operant conditioning reinforcement is given right after the behavior is performed.
Delayed reinforcers When operant conditioning reinforcement is given at a later point in the future for a behavior performed right now.
Reinforcement schedule The time scale upon which reinforcement is given. Reinforcement schedule options include: continuous, fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval schedule.
Bobo doll experiment The most reliable social learning/observational learning experiment. Created by Albert Bandura. Kids who observed videos with adults being violent towards Bobo dolls were much more likely to be violent themselves. The kids learned by observing.
Antisocial behavior Behavior that is highly aggressive, insensitive, and breaks social norms. There are theories that suggest antisocial behavior can be learned from poor role models.
Created by: thompsonce
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