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Pharmacology Test #2

Antiemetic and Antinausea Drugs - Anayansi

an area in the brain that is responsible for initiating the physiological events that lead to nausea and vomiting vomiting center
area in the brain that sends neurotransmitter signal to the vomiting center chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)
what are the neurotransmitters involved in nausea and vomiting? acetylcholine (ACh), Dopamine (D2), Histamine (H1), Prostaglandins, Serotonin (5-HT3)
How do most anti emetics work? by blocking the pathways thus blocking the stimulus that induces vomiting
what is the general use for each type of anti emetics? prevention and reduction of nausea and vomiting
what is the primary goal of antiemetic therapy? to minimize or prevent fluid and electrolyte disturbances and minimize deteriorating of the patient's nutritional status
which medication is often used in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting? Lorazepam
what class of antiemetic drug is Scopolamine? Anticholinergic
which medication is one of the most commonly used to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness? Scopolamine
what is the primary anticholinergic drug used as an antiemetic? Scopolamine
Your patient is scheduled for a minor surgery today, under her history you notice that she has glaucoma. Which medication would be contraindicated because of her glaucoma? Scopolamine
what are some of the most popular antihistamines? Antivert, Dramanine and Benadryl
what are some of the most safe anti emetics? Antihistamines
what is the name of the antihistamine that should never be given by intravenous route? Hydroxyzine (Vistaril)
Antivert is commonly used to treat what? dizziness, vertigo, nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness
How do antihistamines work? they prevent cholinergic stimulation in vestibular and reticular areas
what class of antiemetic medication can also be used for nonproductive cough, allergy symptoms and sedation Antihistamines
Shock and lactation are contraindications of what medication? Meclizine (Antivert)
How do Antidopaminergic drugs work? block dopamine receptors in the CTZ
what are the most commonly used antidopaminergic drugs? Prochlorperazine (Compazine) and Promethazine (Phenergan)
you have a patient who is experiencing trachycardia. which class of antiemetic medication would be contraindicated for this patient? Antidopaminergics
Prochlorperazine (Compazine) is contraindicated for patients with hypersensitivity to phenothiazines, patients in coma, patients who have seizures, encephalopathy, bone marrow suppression
Why must you be careful to not give Promethazine (Phenergan) as an intraarterial injection? it can cause severe tissue damage often requiring amputation
what antiemetic medication is contraindicated on children younger than 2 years? Promethazine (Phenergan)
What is the most common adverse effect of Promethazine (Phenergan) sedation
Promethazine (Phernergan) should never be given in which route? subcutaneous
What is the mechanism of Prokinetis? promote movement of substances through the GI tract and increase GI motility
What does Metoclopramine (Reglan) treat? delayed gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux and also antiemetic
what is the name of the prokinetic that is contraindicated for patients with seizure disorders, pheochromocytoma, breast cancer or GI obstruction? Metroclopramide (Reglan)
what is the actions of serotonin blockers? block serotonin receptors and the GI tract, CTZ and VC
Which class of antiemetic drug used to prevent postoperative nausea can be given to a patient 30 minutes before the end of a surgical procedure? serotonin blockers
If your patient is receiving chemotherapy which type of antiemetic drug can you expect to give the patient? serotonin blockers
when giving a patient serotonin blockers for cancer treatment, when is it expected that the medication will be given to the patient? in the first 24-48 hours of chemotherapy
what serotonin blockers is commonly used in the hospital setting for nausea? Ondansetron (Zofran)
which antiemetic classification, blocks nausea at different sites? serotonin blockers
which medication is used for the treatment of hyperemesis graviddarum (vomiting associated with pregnancy? Ondansetron (Zofran)
which medication is used to stimulate appetite and weight gain in patients with AIDS? Dronabinol (Marinol)
which class of antiemetics is derived from THC? Tetrahydrocannabinoid
which medication is used as a second line drug treatment when other anti emetics have failed? Dronabinol (Marinol)
your patient is 6 weeks pregnant and complains of morning sickness, which medication would you anticipate her doctor to prescribe? Phosphorated carbohydrate solution (Emetrol)
which medication works by direct local action on the walls of the GI tract? Phosphorated carbohydrate solution (Emetrol)
which medication is used only for the treatment of "mild" nausea? Phosphorated carbohydrate solution (Emetrol)
which herbal product is used for the treatment of nausea? Ginger
your patient has been ordered warfarin by the doctor. you notice on the patient's history that she takes ginger for nausea sometimes. what do you tell the patient? taking ginger while on warfarin can increase her risk for increased bleeding
frequently monitor BP on patients taking this med, especially if they are elderly meclizine (Antivert)
Created by: arflwr25



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