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Chapter 17 Notes

vocab about the periodic table

Element any pure substance that is made of only one kind of atom
Ancient Greeks the first to define elements as the basic building block of matter
Alchemy became a real science in the 17th and 18th centuries
They believed that true science knowledge is gained from observing, experimenting and reasoning Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, Antoine Lavoisier
How many elements are there today? 117-118 elements
How many NATURALLY occurring elements are there? 92 elements
How many elements are solids at room temperature? 13 elements
--> Monatomic Elements have 1 atom in its natural state
--> Diatomic Elements have 2 atoms in its natural state
Monatomic Elements: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn (noble gases)
Diatomic Elements: H/2, N/2, O/2, F/2, Cl/2, Br/2, I/2
Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the elements into what is now the periodic table, placed elements by increasing atomic masses, and left blank spots for new elements to be found
Johann Dobereiner, 1829 placed elements in according to their masses, created Triads
John Newlands placed elements in the table by increasing atomic masses, saw that every 8th element had similar properties and called them octaves
Henry Moseley discovered how x-rays could count the protons and find an element's atomic number, and arranged the elements by atomic number
Periodic Table arrangement: by increasing atomic number
Periodicity how elements display certain characteristics repeatedly when placed in order by atomic mass
Periodic Law the properties of elements vary in a periodic pattern with their atomic number
--> Metals electrons are "lost" easily
--> Non-metals hold electrons tightly
Metals: lusterous, malleable, conduct electricity and ductile
Non-metals: lack luster, brittle, don't conduct electricity, non-ductile
The more energy levels it has, the larger it is
The Second Law of Thermodynamics all natural processes move towards a state of minimum energy
Octet Rule atoms are most stable when they have 8 electrons in their valence energy level
Electron Affinity the strength of attraction of electrons to UNBONDED atoms
Electronegativity the strength of attraction of electrons to BONDED atoms
Ionic Bonds metal, non-metal
Covalent Bonds non-metal, non-metal
Metallic Bonds metal, metal
Electron Sea Theory atoms with weak electronegativities usually have loosely held valence electrons
Created by: Laina101