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Antibiotics

Infectious Disease

QuestionAnswer
PCNs MOA inhibit cell wall synthesis
Vancomycin MOA (glycopeptide) - inhibit peptidoglycan cross-linking
Aminoglycosides MOA (tobramycin, gentamycin, neomycin) - stop mRNA translation
Quinolones MOA DNA gyrase inhibitors: inhibit bacterial DNA synthase
Macrolides MOA inhibit 50S ribosome => decreased protein synthesis
Tetracyclines MOA Protein synthesis inhibitor: act on 30S subunit
Classes of Abx that are cell wall synthesis inhibitors PCNs. Cephalosporins. Monobactams (aztreonam). Carbapenems. Vanco
Classes of Abx that are protein synthesis inhibitor Aminoglycosides. Tetracyclines. Macrolides. Choramphenicol. Clindamycin.
Antimetabolites = Sulfonamides
Protein synthesis inhibitor MOA Bind to ribosomes and prevent protein synthesis => cell death & decreased replication
1st gen cephalosporins activity Cefazolin & cephalexin: gram pos (Staph / Strep), skin infxn, surg ppx
2nd gen cephalosporins activity Cefaclor, cefoxitin, cefuroxime: more GN activity (E coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, H flu); intra-abd infxn
3rd gen cephalosporins activity Ceftazidime (Pseudomonas), ceftriaxone, cefdinir: primarily GN activity (including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia), some Gm Pos. Tx N meningitides
4th gen cephalosporins activity Cefepime: broad GN activity including resistance to beta-lactamase; Pseudomonas. Less GP
5th gen cephalosporins activity Ceftaroline: against selected Staph spp (MSSA skin only), some Strep spp, some GN (H flu, Klebsiella, E coli)
Monobactam activity AztreonamL GNR (Pseudomonas, Serratia, Klebsiella)
Carbapenem activity Broad vs anaerobes, esp PCN-resistant pneumococcus & Enterobacter
Aminoglycosides activity Gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin: GN enteric bacteria (E coli, Proteus, Klebs, Serratia, Enterobacter)
Tetracyclines activity GP & GN including atypical PNA bugs, Rickettsia, Lyme disease
Macrolides activity GP; atypical PNA bugs, H pylori
Antimetabolites (sulfonamides) activity GP & GN; esp E coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter
Trimethoprim is used to tx: combined with sulfa drug to tx UTIs, PCP PNA, Shigella, Salmonella, URIs
Quinolones activity Aerobic GNR (Pseudomonas, Neisseria); Anthrax
NRTIs MOA Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase. AZT, didanosin (ddI), lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T)
NNRTIs MOA Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: inhibit reverse transcriptase. Nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz
Protease inhibitors MOA Inhibit production of mature virions, inhibit replication. Ritonavir, indinavir
Penicillin is used to tx (3): Syphilis, GBS (in PG female), N meningitides
Beta-lactamase PCNs include: nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacilin, cloxacillin, and Cillian Murphy
Beta-lactamase PCNs tx these types of infxn (3) Staph spp (not MRSA), skin infxn, osteomyelitis
Created by: Abarnard