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P.S. Ch. 17 Vocab

Vocab only

TermDefinition
Element Any pure substance that is made of only one kind of atom
Ancient Greeks were the first to define elements as the basic building blocks of matter.
Aristotle believed in four elements air, fire, earth and water
Alchemy included aspects of chemistry, philosophy, religion, metallurgy, medicine, and art.
Many alchemists considered shifty, and their main objective was to make gold out of valueless materials like leat. They purified substances that were later understood to be elements though.
Alchemy became a real science in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Isaac Newton Robert Boyle and Antoine Lavoisier believed that true scientific knowledge was gained by observing, experimenting, and reasoning
Monotonic Elements He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Monotonic Elements have 1 atom in natural state
Diatomic Elements 2 atoms in natural state
Diatomic Elements Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
Dmitri Mendeleev Arranged the elements into what eventually became the periodic table used today
Johann Dobereiner In 1829 a chemist placed elements in order of increasing MASS, the middle element often displayed properties that were mid-way between the other 2. With his, almost all the groups contained 3 elements so he called them TRIADS.
Johann Dobereiner His idea was important because new elements became better understood, chemist started to recognize patterns in properties.
Periodicity The repetition of certain properties at regular intervals when elements were placed in order of atomic MASS
John Newlands Arranged the elements in the table in order of the their increasing atomic masses. When arranged in seven columns he noted that in most cases every 8th element had similar properties. He called these octaves.
Dmitri Mendeleev Organized elements by increasing atomic masses as well. He arranged the cards until he had grouped similar elements in rows. His has IMPORTANT feature....BLANK SPOTS! These were spots for undiscovered elements. He credited for our current periodic table.
Dmitri Mendeleev He called the principle that the properties of elements vary in a periodic or recurring pattern with their atomic MASSES the Periodic Law.
Periodic law The principle that the properties of elements vary in a periodic or recurring pattern with their atomic masses
Henry Moseley Discovered how to use x-rays to count the protons in an atom's nucleus to find an elements atomic number.
Henry Moseley Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number. Led to the revision of the periodic law of elements. NOW it is the properties of the elements vary with their atomic NUMBERS in a periodic way.
Metals They belong to families with relatively few valence electrons. These valence electrons are not held very strongly and are easily removed.
Metals If it were not for these "loose" electrons, metals would not have a metallic luster (shiny), be malleable (can be molded), ductile (make long stringy wires), or conduct electricity.
Non-metals Hold their electrons tightly, so their properties are very different from metals
Metals Luster, Malleable, Conduct electricity, Ductile (long skinny strings like copper wires or ducts)
Non-metals Lack luster, Brittle, Don't conduct electricity, Are not ductile
Periods or Series The horizontal rows of the periodic table
Similar The elements in the same period do NOT have ______________ properties
Period number Tells how many MAIN ENERGY LEVELS the elements in that period have in their GROUND STATE.
Ground state Lowest energy state for the electrons
Period number Equals the energy level containing the valence electrons
Number of valence electrons Is important in determining the chemical and many physical properties of an element
Distance between its valence electrons and nucleus Many properties of an atom depend on the _______________________________________________________________________________.
More, larger The ________ energy levels an atom has, the __________ it is.
Larger The __________ it is, the farther the valence electrons are from the nucleus
Attraction, weaker Thus the ____________ of the nucleus on the valence electrons is __________.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics The tendency for atoms to form bonds is governed by
The Second Law of Thermodynamics This states that ALL NATURAL PROCESSES MOVE TOWARD A STATE OF MINIMUM ENERGY
Octet rule Atoms generally are most stable when they have a full 8 electrons in their valence energy level. Some exceptions are Hydrogen ( 1 electron, 1 energy that only holds 2 electrons max), and the next 3 elements Li,Be,B,He too.
Gain, lose, share Atoms can _______, __________, or ___________ electrons to get to the octet
Ions When atoms gain and lose electrons they make ________. These have charges. Then the opposite charges are attracted to each other
Electron affinity Deals with the strength of attraction of electrons to UNBONDED ATOMS
High, lose, small Atoms with _______ electron affinities will take or share electrons from other atoms. Atoms with low electrons will _________ their valence electrons or have a very _______ part in sharing them when bonding.
Electronegativity Deals with an atom's ability to attract and hold electrons when BONDED TO OTHER ATOMS.
more, more The _____ electronegative the ____ more likely it will take electrons.
Fluorine Strongest/most electronegative
Francium Weakest/Least electronegative
Covalent bonds Non-metal/non-metal = sharing electrons (work together)
Ionic bonds Metal/non-metal = giving away and taking electrons
Ionic bonds Happens when there is a BIG difference in the electronegativities of the elements
Metallic bonds Metal/metal = everyone shares the electrons
Electron Sea Theory Atoms with weak electronegativities usually have only a few loosely held valence electrons. These atoms bond by sharing their easily lost electrons among many atoms. These mobile electrons are not associated with any specific nucleus.
Electron Sea Theory Electrons move freely/easily = malleable Socialism = equally sharing electrons
Created by: MaryCox