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Phy.Sci.Chap. 17-18

Element: any pure substance that is made only of one kind of atom.
Alchemy: included aspects of chemistry, philosophy, religion, metallurgy, medicine, and art.
Monatomic elements: have one atom in natural state.
Diatomic elements: have two atoms in natural state.
Periodicity: the repetition of certain properties at regular intervals when elements were placed in order of atomic mass.
Metals: belong to families with relatively few valence electrons. These valence electrons are not held very strongly and are easily removed. Luster, malleable, conduct electricity, and ductile.
Non-metals: hold their electrons tightly, so their properties are very different from metals. Matte, brittle, do not conduct electricity, not ductile.
Octet rule: atoms generally are most stable when they have a full eight electrons in their valence energy level.
Electron affinity: deals with the strength of attraction of electrons to un-bonded atoms.
Electronegativity: deals with an atom's ability to attract and hold electrons when bonded to other atoms.
Covalent bonds: non-metal/non-metal; sharing electrons!
Ionic bonds: metal/non-metal; giving away and taking electrons. "Bond, Ionic Bond. Taken, not shared."
Metallic bonds: metal/metal; everyone shares the electrons; delocalized.
Electron Sea Theory: atoms with weak electronegativities usually have only a few loosely held valence electrons. These atoms bond by sharing their easily lost electrons among many atoms. These mobile electrons are not associated with any specific nucleus.
Fluorine: Most electronegative; smallest.
Francium: Least electronegative; largest.
Created by: kmills100599