Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Ch. 5 Memory

Psychology: An Exploration

Memory An active system that stores, organizes, alters and recovers informations. Alters the activity, structure, and chemistry of brain cells.
Encoding Transform information in a form that can be stored, neural/memory codes.
Consolidation keep/maintain information. Necessitates physiological change in brain.
Retrieval Bringing to mind information previously stored in memory.
Information-Processing View of Memory: 3 different, interacting memory systems
Sensory Memory very brief storage of sensory information. Unlimited capacity, all info lost in <4 secs unless one pays attention to it in which case it automatically transfers to ST memory
Cocktail Party Phenomenon evidence for filtering process, outside of awareness, in sensory memory
Working/Short term memory what you're thinking about at any particular moment (auditory form). info retained for <30 secs
Magic number Capacity of working/ST memory, limited to 7 +/- 2 bits. Temporary storage in prefrontal cortex
Displacement incoming items push out existing items when capacity is full
Chunking info grouped into meaningful unites or chunks, extends amount in a "bit"
Rehearsal maintains info in ST/working memory and is used to transfer it to LT memory
Maintenance rehearsal just repeat the info over and over
Elaborative rehearsal more effortful, meaningful, link new information to information already in LT memory.
Working Memory Components CE (Central executive), PL (phonological loop/auditory recorder), VS (visual sketchpad)
Long Term memory Stored in hippocampus, unlimited capacity, more or less permanent in duration
Retrieval recover information from storage in LT memory and transfer it to ST/working memory
Recall search memory to reproduce the material ex. fill in the blank, essay questions
Recognition identify the correct item from among several choices. Recognize something as familiar
Declarative memory (Type of LT Memory) personal experience + impersonal knowledge, facts, school info. Hippocampus. "knowing that"
Procedural memory (Type of LT Memory) for motor movement skills. Cerebellum. "knowing how"
Levels of Processing principle the deeper the processing, the more robust the memory
Memory Reconstruction/constructive processing unconsciously/unknowingly alter memories to make them fit in with what we believe to be true. The content and accuracy lf LT memories may undergo change and distortion across time and not alwas be as accurate as people think
Eyewitness testimony "Show up" - witnesses only see one suspect at a time and don't know how many suspects will be shown. Fewer misidentifications with a show-up, but more failures to make a positive identification (misinformation effect)
Automatic encoding: flashbulb memories intense, vivid memories of times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant events. Very confident that remember, but accuracy diminishes over time
Distributed practice spacing the study of material. more effective than massed practice
serial order/serial position effect remember items better at the beginning and end of lists
primacy effect remember items at the beginning of list due to increased rehearsal for early item
recency effect remember items at end of list because they are still in the working memory (middle items have been displaced by later items)
source amnesia don't remember where you got information from
situational factors affecting LT memory retrieval
retrieval cues (situational factor) hints, reminders
encoding specificity (context dependent) (situational factor) LT memories more easily retrieved when person has same environmental cues present during retrieval as during the original learning (factors outside person)
state-dependent learning (situational factor) retrieval easier when person in same physiological (body/mood) state as during original learning (factors inside person)
decay theory information is lost, deteriorates with passage of time/disuse
encoding failure info never learned (not put into LT memory) or not adequately learned
interference tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories and the reverse
hippocampus part of the brain responsible for forming new LT memories
Created by: hpennella
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards