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Chapter 17-18

9th grade Physical Science

Element any pure substance that is made of only one kind of atom
Today there are _____ elememts 117
The heaviest elements are all _________ and have VERY SHORT half lives so they are difficult to analyze radioactive
There are ___ naturally occurring elements 92
Mercury (Hg) and Bromine (Br) are ________ at room temperature liquid
Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F), Neon (Ne), Chlorine (Cl), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), and Radon (Rn) are ______ at room temperature gases
Monotomic elements Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, and Radon
Diatomic elements Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
Who created the periodic table Dmitri Mendeleev
Who placed elements in order of increasing MASS Johann Dobereiner
The repetition of certain properties at regular intervals when elements were placed in order of atomic MASS Periodicity
Periodic law The properties of the elements vary with their atomic numbers in a periodic way
Metals Luster, Malleable, Conduct electricity, Ductile
Non-metals Lack luster, Brittle, Don't conduct electricity , not ductile
The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called Periods
A period number tells how many ________ the elements in that period have in their GROUND STATE MAIN ENERGY LEVELS
The MORE energy levels an atom has, the _______ it is LARGER
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS the tendency for atoms to form bonds
Octet rule atoms generally are most stable when they have 8 electrons in their valence energy level
When atoms gain and lose electrons they make IONS
Cations are _______ positive
Anions are _______ negative
Electron affinity deals with the strength of attraction of electrons to UNBONDED ATOMS
Atoms with _____ electron affinities will take or share electrons from other atoms high
Atoms with ____ electron affinities will lose their valence electrons low
Electronegativity deals with an atom's ability to attract and hold electrons when BONDED TO OTHER ATOMS
Covalent bonds Non-metal/Non-metal; share electrons
Ionic bonds metal/non-metal; giving away and taking electrons
Metallic bonds metal/metal; everyone shares the electrons Electron Sea Theory
Electron Sea Theory Atoms with weak electronegatives usually have only a few loosely held valence electrons. These atoms bond by sharing their easily lost electrons among many atoms.
Created by: faithdavis