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Chap. 17/18

Physical Science

element any pure substance that is made of only one kind of atom
How did the Ancient Greeks first define the elements? As the basic building blocks of matter
Aristotle believed in 4 "elements" AIR, FIRE, EARTH, WATER
Alchemy aspects of chemistry, philosophy, religion, metallurgy, medicine, and art.
Alchemy became a real science when? in the 17th & 18th centuries
Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, & Antoine Lavoisier believed that true scientific knowledge was gained by observing, experimenting, and reasoning
How many elements are there today? 117
The heaviest elements are all radioactive and have _____ ________ half lives so they are difficult to analyze VERY SHORT
How many naturally occurring elements are there? 92
all but ____ are solids at room temperature in their pure forms 13
___________ (__) & _______________ (___) are liquids Mercury (Hg), Bromine (Br)
remaining 11 are gases Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen, Fluorine (F), Neon (Ne), Chlorine (Cl), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), and Radon (Rn)
Monotomic elements: have 1 atom in natural state
Diatomic elements (definition) have 2 atoms in their natural state
diatomic elements Hydrogen2, Nitrogen2, Oxygen2, Florine2, Chlorine2, Bromine2, Iodine2
19th century: Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the --- elements into what eventually became the periodic table used today
Johan Dobereiner, placed elements in order of ________________ _____ increasing, mass
With his, almost all the groups contained 3 elements called ________ TRIADS
His idea was important because as new elements became better understood, chemists started to recognize patterns in properties
Periodicity the repetition of certain properties at regular intervals when elements were placed in order of atomic MASS
John Newlands arranged the elements in the table in order of their increasing atomic masses.
when arranged in 7 columns he noted that in most cases every 8th element had similar properties OCTAVES
When Mendeleev organized the elements he had an important feature BLANK SPOTS= spots for undiscovered elements
Mendeleev called the principle that the properties of elements vary in a periodic or recurring pattern with their atomic masses Periodic law
Who arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number? Henry Mosely
Revised periodic law the properties of the elements vary with their atomic number in a periodic way
Metals belong to families w/ relatively few valence electrons, These valence electrons aren't held very strongly & are easily removed. If it weren't for the "loose" electrons, metals would have a metallic luster, be malleable, ductile, or conduct electricity.
Metals on the periodic table alkali metals (1A), alkaline earth metals (2A), transition metals (middle part), inner transition metals (7A), metals to the right of the "staircase"
Non-Metals hold their electrons tightly, so their properties are very different from metals. They lack luster, are brittle (opposite of malleable), don't conduct electricity, and are NOT ductile.
PERIODS the horizontal rows of the periodic table. Tells how many MAIN ENERGY LEVELS the elements in that period have in their GROUND STATE
ground state the lowest energy state for the electrons
the number of _________ ___________ is important in determining the chemical & many physical properties of the element
the MORE energy levels an atom has, the _________ it is LARGER
The larger it is, the _________ the valence electrons are from the nucleus. Thus the ______________ of the nucleus on the valence electrons is ___________ farther, ATTRACTION, WEAKER
less protons & electrons weaker for it to hold atom= looser, larger
more protons & electrons, stronger to hold atom= tighter, smaller
when the element has the same energy levels as another, look at the _______ ___________ to tell which on is bigger atomic number (proton count)
The tendency for atoms to from bonds is governed by the- SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
The second law of thermodynamics states all natural processes move toward a state of minimum energy
Octet rule Atoms generally are most stable when they have 8 electrons in their valence energy level. Some exceptions are H (1 electron, 1 energy level that holds only 2 electrons max) and the next 3 elements, Li, Be, B.
Atoms can ______ , ______ , or ______ electrons to get to the octet gain, lose, share
When atoms gain & lose electrons they make _____ IONS- have charges, then the opposite charges are attracted to each other
Cations positive
Electron affinity deals with the strength of attraction of electrons to UNBONDED ATOMS.
Atoms with high electron affinities will _____ or _____ electrons from other atoms. take, share
Atoms with low electron affinities will _____ their valence electrons or have a very small part in sharing them when bonding lose
Electronegativity deals with an atom's ability to attract & hold electrons when BONDED TO OTHER ATOMS.
The more electronegative the more likely it will _____ electrons take
factors of electronegativity energy levels, valence electrons
non-metal/non-metal-shares electrons COVALENT BONDS
metal/non-metal-giving away and taking electrons IONIC BONDS
ionic bond bond, ionic bond, taken, not shared
metal/metal-everyone shares the electrons (de-localized, "electron socialism" METALLIC BONDS
*Electron Sea theory* Atoms with weak electronegativities usually have only a few loosely held valence electrons. These atoms bond by sharing their easily lost electrons among many atoms. These mobile electrons are not associated with any specific nucleus.
Fluorine (F) highest electronegativity (-)
Francium (Fr) least electronegative
ionic bonds _________ _____________ conduct electricity
covalent bonds melts at ________ temperatures that ionic bonds lower
Created by: amanda1927