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Unit 10: Thinking and Language

Cognition the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Concepts a mental grouping of similar objects, events,ideas, or people
Prototype a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to the prototype a quick and easy method for including items in a category.(ex bird, cat, and car)
Algorithim a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Heurisitic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
Insight a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Confirmation Bias a tendency to search for information that confirms one`s preconceptions
Fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; and impediment to problem solving
Mental set a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Functional fixedness the tendency to think things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
Representative heruistic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information( flip a coin think that heads 10 times in arrow is less likely then head and tails in a mixed
Overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct
Belief Perseverance the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
Framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
Belief bias the tendency for one`s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
Language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
Availability heuristic mental shortcut, relies on immediate examples to come to the mind. (Ex. New report says people are getting fired you think you may get fired, despite the many other factors.)
phoneme in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word(prefix)
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given a language
semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, that study of meaning
babbling stage beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
one-word sage the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2 , during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speak like a telegram-"go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
Created by: owenwelsh