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rad 105

physics

QuestionAnswer
Organized and classified knowledge define which of the following? Science
What is the branch of science that deals with matter, energy and their relationship to each other? physics
what is the mass per unit volume of a substance called? density
The branch of physics pertaining to the origin and nature of x-rays is defined by radiologic physics
what is the formula for converting Farenheit to degrees celcus 5/9(F-32)
The exposure of a radiograph is directly proportional to the time of exposure. What will happen if the mA is doubled it will double
The exposure of a radiograph is inversly proportional to the square of the distance from a point source. What would be the exposure on a radiograph if the distance is tripled? it will be 1/9
What devices converts chemical energy to electrical energy battery
a neutral atom that loses an orbital electron will have a positive charge
how many electrons are in the O shell of an atom 50
___________ is anything which occupies space and has inertia matter
How many electrons can occupy the Q shell of an atom 98
an elementary positive particle with a mass of about 1.67x10-24g, describes the proton
isotopes differ in the number of neutrons (same number of protons)
how many neutrons are in an isotope of lead that has an atomic number of 82 and a mass number of 210 128
in an atom, electrical neutrality is achieved by maintaining a balance between the electrons and protons
the maximum number of electrons found in any energy level (shell) at any point in time is: 2n2
Carbon has an atomic number of 6. One of its isotopes has a mass number of 14. The number of neutrons in this isotope is: 8
the orderly arrangement of the elements by their atomic number and chemical properties is found in a: Periodic Table
If an electron is gained or lost from an atom, the atom becomes an ion
the theory that electrons circulate in discrete circular paths was proposed by Bohr
which of the following atomic particles cannot be further subdivided protons, neutrons and electrons
matter is made up of indivisible and invisible particles called atoms
what is the definition of energy the ability to do work
what correctly states newtons first law of motion an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an external force
what are two kinds of electrical charge positive and negative
the ability of a moving body to do work is called kinetic energy
what device converts chemical energy to mechanical energy gasoline engine
the smallest subdivision of an element having the characteristics properties of that element is called atom
an electron is _______ charged and has a mass of ________ amu(s) negatively, 0.000548
the number of electrons in its shell determines its valence
the type of bonding that involves the sharing of electrons is called covalent
what is the smallest subdivision of a substance molecule
the force of attraction between the nucleus and an orbital electron is called the electrons ___________ binding energy
a neutral atom that loses an electron by ionization is termed a positive ion
the highest bonding energy of an atom is found in the electrons _________ level first energy orbital
an electrical charge can be neutralized if it is conducted to ground
what are three methods of electrification friction, contact, and induction
a material that allows the flow of electrons is known as conductor
in the law of conservation of energy, energy can be transformed from one form to another, and cannot be created nor destroyed
where are the electrical charges found on a conductor the external surface
what is the electrical property of copper conductor
the type of bonding that involves the attraction of electrons is called ionic
electric insulators inhibit the movement of electric charge
Six ways ionization occurs exposure of matter to xrays and gamma rays exposure of matter to a stream of electrons spontaneous decay of radionuclides exposure of certain chemicals to light chemical ionization thermionic emission
Eight forms of energy are mechanical thermal light electrical chemical atomic molecular nuclear
the law of conservation of energy states energy can neither be created or destroyed but can transform from one form to another
the flow of electrons is known as current
what is the unit of electrical current ampere
which creates the most electrical resistance a long wire with a small diameter
the unit for resistance ohm
the unit of electrical power watt
formula for power loss is P=I2R
what are the two poles of the magnet called north and south
what are the magnetic lines that surround a magnet called flux
what are the materials that are WEAKLY ATTRACTED to a magnet paramagnetic
materials that are difficult to magnetize and demagnetize are said to have high retentivity
how are the north poles of the two magnets going to affect each other they will repel
what are the materials that are slightly repelled by a magnet diamagnetic
materials that are easily magnetized and demagnetized are said to have high permeability
what moves in a conductor negative charges
what strongly attracts magnetic fields ferromagnetic
what unit is used to measure potential difference volt
what effect does high temperature have on resistance length of the conductor, diameter of conductor, temperature of the conductor
What are the four factors for electromagnetic induction the speed of which a conductor cuts the magnetic lines of force the strength of the magnetic field the angle between the conductor and direction of magnetic field the number of turns of a conductor if its wound into a coil
a coil of wire helix
a coil of wire carrying a current is called a solenoid
a coil of wire with a current with an iron core is called an electromagnet
electromagnetism the branch of physics that deals with the relationship between electricity and magnetism
What are the swirling currents called that are induced in transformers and produce heat losses? eddy loss current
what type of transformer has more coils in the secondary than in the primary? step-up
which of the following materials would make the best transformer core? soft iron
when the radiographer selects kilovoltage on the control panel, which device is adjusted? autotransformer
what type of transformer core is more widely used in radiographic equipment? closed core
which type of transformer core is more efficient? shell type
which is a step up transformer? 20,000 turns on primary coil, 40,000 on secondary coil
tapping windings of the autotransformer to supply voltage to the step-up transformer is the purpose of which of these? voltmeter
current loss in the core of a transformer due to changing of magnetic fields by the AC is? hysteresis
what is the major reason for using alternating current? transformers cannot work without it
How can hysteresis losses be reduced in a transformer? lamination
loss of electrical power due to resistance of the coils in a transformer is called: copper loss
if the voltage is stepped-up, what happens to the current in the secondary side of the transformer? decreases
what is it called when a current is induced in a secondary coil by simply changing the current in the primary? mutual induction
What is the principle reservoir for excess charges? the earth
regarding the movement of an electric charge from one atom to another usually outer shell electrons move
electrostatics concerns resting electric charges
the unit of electrostatic charge is the: coulomb
the principle electrostatic law states that: an electron will repel and electron
objects become electrified because of: the transfer of electrons
what would be included as one of the four basic electrostatic laws? Planck's law
an electrostatic force is created when a/an electrostatic charge exists
the unit of electrostatic force is Newton
1 C = 6.3 x 10(18) electron charges smallest unit of charge the coulumb
the unit of electric potential is the: volt
what is the best electric insulator wood
the ratio of electric potential across a circuit element to the current flowing through that element is called: resistance
the electrical resistance of wire will increase as the diameter of the: wire decreases
when an electric current flows through a wire with resistance (R) energy is: generated as heat
the energy of a bremsstrahlung photon is: the difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energy of the electron
at the end of characteristic cascade, the ________ shell is missing outermost
the transition of orbital electrons from outer to inner shell gives rise to: characteristic radiation
bremsstrahlung interactions may occur only when the incident electron interacts with: the force field of the nucleus
the energy of a characteristic photon is: the difference between the binding energy of the outer and inner shells between which the electron dropped
during a characteristic interaction, the energy of the incident electron must be ______ the electron it knocks from its orbits greater than that of
which of the following types of radiation cannot be produced at tube potential less than 70 keV? characteristic
characteristic interactions may occur only when the incident electron interacts with: an inner shell electron
in the compton effect, the incident photon loses energy by striking a/an loosely bound outer-shell electron
when a photon reacts with an atom and the resulting photon has the same energy level but moves in a different direction, the result is referred to as: unmodified scattering
which of the following constitutes the largest portion of the x-ray beam emerging from the target bremsstrahlung
what type of interaction between matter and radiation does not occur in the normal diagnostic energy range? pair production
Rayleigh scatter takes place when: no transfer of energy upon collision
which of the following are products of the photoelectric effect? photoelectron, characteristic radiation, ionized atom
a high speed electron decelerates as it passes the nucleus of a tungsten atom and gives rise to ____________ radiation bremsstrahlung
the transition of orbital electrons from outer to inner shells gives rise to characteristic radiation
in the diagnostic range, the majority of the x-ray photons produced in the x-ray tube result from the: bremsstrahlung
in an x-ray tube, the production of xrays results from a rapid deceleration of fast moving ______ in the target material electrons
the total number of x-ray photons produced at the target is contingent on: tube current and target material (NOT square of the kV)
what reaction results in true absorption? photoelectric effect
which of the following primarily producces scatter radiation? compton scattering
an electron from an outer shell moves to fill a vacancy by an inner shell electron. This process is known as ________ and __________ radiation is produced cascading, characteristic
__________ interactions occur only when the incident electron interacts with the force field of the nucleus bremsstrahlung
which of the following x-ray interactions with matter is primarily responsible for radiographic contrast? photoelectric effect
radiation that passes through the tube housing in directions other than through the port window is termed leakage radiation
what type of radiation is produced when a high-speed electron is decelerated as it approaches the nucleus of a target atom? bremsstrahlung
which of the following interactions of x-rays with matter is more likely to occur with an inner shell electron photoelectric effect
approximately 99% of kinetic energy of the high-speed electron stream is converted to _______ when it strikes the target on the anode heat
the types of radiation produced at the target are characteristic and bremsstrahlung
which of the following x-ray interaction with matter INHIBITS radiographic contrast? compton scatter
which of the following interactions is the least likely to occue in diagnostic range? pair production
at 60kVp, the primary beam consists primarily of which effect? bremsstrahlung
when gallium is added to silicon, it becomes a __________ type semi conductor p-type
the type of bonding that involves the attraction between oppositely charged ions is called ionic
an apparatus located in a circuit that acts as an indicator of electricity in one direction but conducts electricity in the opposite direction is called a: transformer
electrical devices that allow current to flow only in one direction are called: rectifiers
what type of wiring configurations are used in secondary coils of three-phase transformers: star and delta
why are three phase generators more efficient than single phase voltage never drops to zero
what is the resistance to flow of electricity in an alternating current called? impedence
a solid-state rectifier, with a deficient number of electrons, is referred to as what type of semi-conductor? p-type
which of the following voltage ripples is (are) produced by three-phase equipment 13% and 3.5% ripple
the spinning top test can be used to determine the accuracy of which of the following? rectification circuit
self-rectification leads to a voltage wave form that is the same as which of the following? half-wave
an electric current that continually changes direction is know as what type of current alternating
which of the following circuit devices must be connected in parallel voltmeter
a 3-phase 6 pulse unit has an effective kv of about _____ of the peak kVp 87%
what describes the best electrical properties of silicon semiconductor
with single phase equipment, the voltage across the x-ray tube: drops to zero every 180 degrees
materials that are difficult to magnetize and demagnetize are said to have a high retentivity
what converts chemical energy to electrical energy? battery
silicon, with an excessive number of electrons, is referred to as what type of semiconductor? n-type
what is the unit used to measured potential difference volt
what is it called when a current is induced in a secondary coil by simply changing the current in the primary? mutual induction
what is a device called that measures electrical current? anmeter
what is the simplest type of rectification? self-rectification
3 phase current consist of three single phase voltage waveforms separated by: 120 degrees
in modern x-ray equipment, the device most often used for current rectification is a/an solid state diode
what would NOT be located in the primary side of the x-ray circuit? x-ray tube
what is NOT a device for controlling filament? rectifier
where in the x-ray circuit is the timer located? between the autotransformer and step up transformer
what is an advantage of three-phase equipment over single phase equipment? can achieve shorter exposure times
what device would be used when the milliamperage is set on the control panel rheostat
which of the following meters does not register until an x-ray exposure is made? mA meter
which of the following types of current supplies the x-ray tube? pulsating direct current
what effect does adjusting the filament control have on the production of x-rays? controls the quantity
what is the current indicated by the millianmeter? tube current
where is the rectification circuit located in an xray unit? between the step-up transformer and the x-ray tube
what causes most tube failures? overheating of the filament
what type of motor drives the rotating anode induction
which part of the xray tube has the filament wires and focusing cup? cathode
what will produce the least load on an x-ray tube high kVp, low mAs
what is required of a target material in an x-ray tube?ing point high density, high atomic number, and high melting point
which of the following increase the penetrating power of the x-ray beam? kV
Created by: jhill106